Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Nutritional Composition Juice Produced From Water Melon and Coconut

Nutritional Composition Juice Produced From Water Melon and Coconut

Nutritional Composition Juice Produced From Water Melon and Coconut

Chapter One

The Objective of the Study

Therefore the aim of this study is to determine the nutritional composition of juice produced from coconut (Cocos nucifera) and Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).



Origin of Water Melon (Citrullus lanatus)

Watermelons have been cultivated since prehistoric time, they were grown by the ancient Egyptian, and apparently cultivated thousands of years ago in Asia Minor, Russia, and the near and Middle East (Pierce, 2007). The plant was thought to be originally coming from Africa, particularly native to Central Africa, although explorers reported evidence of possible American origin. Descriptions indicated that the early American melon was of the Citron type (Ware, 2008).

Early French explorers found Indians growing watermelon in the Mississippi Valley. Its culture was not known in Europe until the sixteen century (Ware, 2008). In term of world production watermelon is currently grown mainly in China, Turkey, the USSR, Egypt, the USA, Iran, Japan, Italy, Spain and Syria (Snowdon, 2000, Robinson and Decker, 1999). Gokovsky (2001) reported that Sudan is considered as the centre of origin of watermelon especially Kordofan Zone, where it grows as a wild plant. Also watermelon grown in sandy soils and clay and gardud soils in Darfur state on commercial basis (Abaker, 2000). Beside the Western Region, watermelon is grown in loamy or clay soils of the Gezira near the White Nile, Atbara, the River Nile and Elgash and Toker.


The cucurbits (family cucurbitaceae) form a diverse group of species grown around the world under many conditions and for many different purposes. All cucurbits are frost sensitive, but they differ in their ability to withstand cold and heat. They are grown in low lands and mountains, in fields, green houses, in tropical desert and temperature regions. The major cultivated types include cucumber, melon (cantaloupe or musk melon, honey dew, etc.), squash (cucurbita spp.), pumpkin, and watermelon. Despite the large differences between and within the cucurbit species, they are morphologically very similar in appearance. The germination of cucurbit vegetable seeds requires relatively warm temperature (Lorenz and Maynard, 2000), and takes place within 3 or 4 days at 25-30°C. Cucurbit seeds will continue to develop even after the fruit is removed from the vine. If fruits are harvested before they are fully mature, due to impending frost or other reasons, it is advisable to store them 1 or 2 months before extracting the seeds.

For commercial seed harvesting, special machinery were used. Recent inventions include the seed sluice for small plots, the bulk seed extractor and the single fruit seed extractor, which is used in the glass house or laboratory to extract cucumber seeds (Wehne and Humphries, 2005). Removing the persistent placental material encasing cucumber and bitter melon seeds is aided by fermentation. The water and seed mixture are allowed to set for (1-2) days, depending on the temperature (20-30°C). Fermentation is complete when seeds settle to the bottom of the container and the placental material floats. The seeds are then rinsed and set out to dry. Embedded seeds of watermelon can be removed by chopping and smashing the fruits and adding water to the mixture, seed will sink and the flesh debris, which floats, is poured off.

A dilute solution of hydrochloric acid or ammonia can be used to clean cucumber seeds more quickly. After vigorous stirring, the seeds are free of flesh in 30 min or less. They must be rinsed before drying. This or any other mechanical means of seed cleaning should not be used with a bitter melon seeds which are easily broken (Robinson and Decker, 1999). Where sun drying is possible, seed may be spread in screen-bottom trays placed on racks under warm (<35°C), arid conditions. Artificial drying is also practiced with various bin-type driers and revolving drum units. Indirect heated air is forced down the tunnel and up through the seed filled trays.

Usual recommendations suggested a 100°C as the maximum safe temperature when the cucumber seed is wet and 110°C as the seed become drier (year book of agriculture, 1961). Commercial producers use forced air warmed by propane heaters and flat drying beds or large rotary dryers to dry the seed to moisture content of 5-8%. Under these conditions, cucurbit seed may remain viable for as many as 10 years or more (Whitaker and Davis, 2002, Robinson and Decker, 1999).

Three species of citrullus are generally recognized: Citrullus lanatus, Citrullus ecirrhocogn and Citrullus Colocynthis.  Within Citrullus lanatus domesticated watermelon belongs to var. lanat where as wild populations are generally classified as var. Citroidies (Baiely) Mansf. (Navot and Zamir, 2007)

Plant Description

Watermelon is an annual herb. It is largely cultivated in India and another warm country. It is lying on ground with long steam (up to 10 m and 32.8ft), curly tendrils and large hairy leaves. Leaves are rough on boath side with 3-5 lobe. The plant is monoecious male and female both flower found in same plant with hairy and long flower stalk. The fruit in wild form is 1.5-20 cm in diameter malted, greenish, subglobose, dark green with 50 mm long fruit stalk. The pulp may be yellow or green (wild form) and dark red (cultivar). The seeds are inn yellow to dull brown or black and rarely white, ovate, flattened 9-12×5-7mm (Anonymous, 2002; Fursa, 2001; Van et al., 2004).

Nutritional Values

The fruit Citrullus lanatus carried 92% water by weight and about 6% sugar. It is a very good source of vitamin A, B & C which is necessary for energy production. Citrullus lanatus carry about 6% sugar and 92% water by weight. It is a good source of vitamin C. Composition of dried seed without shell per 100 g include protein 28.3g, fat 47.4 g, water 5.1g, energy 2340kJ (557kcal), carbohydrate 15.3 g, Calcium 54 mg, Phosphorous 755 mg, iron 7.3 mg, thiamin 0.19 mg, riboflavin 0.15 mg, niacin 3.55 mg and folate 58 µg. The seed oil reported to carry oleic, palmitic, stearic acid and glycosides of linoleic (Schippers, 2002). Medicinal plants are good source of antioxidants, vitamin and mineral. They can be used to develop different type of food products like cookies to increase their nutritional values, which helpful to fulfill nutritional requirement and combat with various degenerative disease (Kumari, 2016).

Table 1: Proximate Composition of Water melon

Parameters                                                     Value

Moisture                                                          6.4%

Fat                                                                   47.1%

Protein                                                             68.4%

Fiber                                                                1.2%

Ash                                                                  2.6%

Carbohydrates                                                 25.1%





Fully matured, ripe and fresh watermelon and coconuts with no signs of defect were purchased from “Oja Oba” in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria and transported to the Food processing laboratory of Food Science and Technology department, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.


 Preparation of Watermelon Juice

The watermelons were processed into juice following the method described by Ijah et al. (2015) with slight modification. The watermelons were washed with distilled water to remove dirt and extraneous materials and then washed with 5% hypochlorite solution and rinsed immediately with distilled water. Each watermelon was cut into quarters and the edible fleshly portion (mesocarp) scooped out and cut into small pieces using a sterile stainless steel knife. The cut pieces were transferred into already sterilized blender and blended until sufficient juice was produced. The entire slurry was transferred into a sterile muslin cloth and the particles sieved off. The clear liquid obtained was transferred into clean sterile air tight glass bottles and kept at 4oC for subsequent use.




Table 4.1: Physicochemical Composition of Juice samples produced from Coconut and Watermelon





Juice is a popular and nutritious food consumed by many people around the world today, there are various combinations of fruits in producing juice and this is done to improve the nutritional contents of the juice drink. In this study, juice is produced from blends of Coconut and watermelon, this research study reveal the nutritional composition of this drink produced, it is noted that juice produced from Coconut and watermelon proved to be a very nutritious drink, the nutrient content of the samples such as protein, fat, fibre and ash content was very low, and these nutrients as essential for up keeping of human health. It is therefore concluded that the incorporation of coconut and watermelon for juice making is not good a idea for its lacking nutrients required for human health.


Based on the research of the study it is therefore recommended that improvement on the method of processing and addition of nutrients rich fruits in producing from coconut and watermelon should be a thing of importance to food scientist this can help a long a way in retaining and improving the nutritional composition of coconut and watermelon juice.


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