Organizational Culture as a Predictor of Organizational Outcome (A Case Study of GTB Nigeria Plc)
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
- To ascertain the relationship between organizational culture and organizational outcome
- To ascertain whether organizational culture can predict organizational outcome
- To ascertain whether organizational culture influence employee’s performance
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Organizational culture has been an important theme in the business and management literature for some two decades. One reason for this is that organizational culture has consistently been seen as having the potential to affect a range of organizationally and individually desired outcomes. Ritchie (2000, p. 1) notes that, from the time of the earliest writers on organizational culture (including, for example, Deal and Kennedy, 1982, and Ouchi, 1981), “it has been suggested that organizational culture affects such outcomes as productivity, performance, commitment, self confidence, and ethical behavior”. Schein (2004) defines organizational culture as a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems. Kotter and Heskett (1992) used the same definition of organizational culture, but eliminated the distinction between beliefs and values. There is broad agreement, however, that organizational culture provides the ‘social glue’ that gives organizations coherence, identity, and direction. It is most frequently conceived of as a set of shared values and symbolic elements that provide a common meaning frame by which organizational members interpret and make sense of the organizational world they occupy and that this guides their thinking, feelings and behaviors (see Schein 1985). Wallach (1983) has identified three separate organizational cultures he labels as bureaucratic, innovative, and supportive cultures. Bureaucratic culture is hierarchical and compartmentalized. There are clear lines of responsibility and authority. Innovativeness refers to a creative, results-oriented, challenging work environment. A supportive culture exhibits teamwork and a people-oriented, friendly, encouraging, trusting work environment. All three types of culture are considered in this study. Deshpande and Webster (1989) defined it as “the pattern of shared values and beliefs that help individuals understand organizational functioning and thus provide them with norms for behavior in the organization”, by dividing it into four types of organizational culture: clan, adhocracy, hierarchy, and market. Their definition of organizational culture was easily classified into types of organizations theoretically. It, however, was difficult to measure the types of organization practically. Since one organization may have two or more types of organizational culture. Another approach of defining organizational culture is based on traits: involvement, consistency, mission, and adaptability, developed by Denison (2000). The first two types of organizational culture reflect the internal integration and the two remaining show the external adaptation. Denison’s (2000) organizational culture model has been used in research extensively. So this model is considered more comprehensive than the other previous models. Gordon and Christensen (1993) divided organizational culture into 8 dimensions, which correspond to cultural values: Planning orientation, Innovation, Aggressiveness/action orientation, People orientation, Team orientation, Communication, Results orientation, Confrontation. According to House et al., (2004), organizational culture is defined in 9 dimensions such as Uncertainty Avoidance, Power Distance, Institutional Collectivism, In Group Collectivism, Gender Egalitarianism, Assertiveness, Future Orientation, Performance Orientation, And Humane Orientation. The study of House et al. has been used by some researchers recently. Another approach in organizational culture assessment by nine dimensions: network structure, generalized roles, quality enhancement, collectivism, performance orientation, emphasis on feeling, environmental concerns, long-term employment, and long-term perception was developed by Swierczek, and Rodsuth (2002) for their research in Thailand In summary, the four organizational culture models developed by Gordon and Christensen, (1993); Swierczek and Rodsutti, (2002); House, et al., (2004); Sridhar, Gudmundson, and Freinauer, (2004) were seen clearly to demonstrate organizational culture dimensions.
The researcher used descriptive research survey design in building up this project work the choice of this research design was considered appropriate because of its advantages of identifying attributes of a large population from a group of individuals. The design was suitable for the study as the study sought organizational culture as a predictor of organizational outcomes
Sources of data collection
Data were collected from two main sources namely:
(i)Primary source and
These are materials of statistical investigation which were collected by the research for a particular purpose. They can be obtained through a survey, observation questionnaire or as experiment; the researcher has adopted the questionnaire method for this study.
These are data from textbook Journal handset etc. they arise as byproducts of the same other purposes. Example administration, various other unpublished works and write ups were also used.
Population of the study
Population of a study is a group of persons or aggregate items, things the researcher is interested in getting information on organizational culture as a predictor of organizational outcomes. 200 staff of GTB Nigeria PLC, Lagos state was selected randomly by the researcher as the population of the study.
PRESENTATION ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Efforts will be made at this stage to present, analyze and interpret the data collected during the field survey. This presentation will be based on the responses from the completed questionnaires. The result of this exercise will be summarized in tabular forms for easy references and analysis. It will also show answers to questions relating to the research questions for this research study. The researcher employed simple percentage in the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was on organizational culture as a predictor of organizational outcomes. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of organizational culture as a predictor of organizational outcomes
This study was on organizational culture as a predictor of organizational outcomes. Three objectives were raised which included: To ascertain the relationship between organizational culture and organizational outcome, to ascertain whether organizational culture can predict organizational outcome, to ascertain whether organizational culture influence employee’s performance. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of GTB, Lagos. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made customer care officers , marketers, human resource managers and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
The results from the study demonstrated that organizational culture values such as fairness, growth opportunities, job enthusiasm and good reputation of the organization affect the job satisfaction of the employees. The results of the current study are in line with the findings of Clark and Oswald (1996) who also found that fairness in the organization’s processes and evaluations increase employees’ satisfaction. Similarly, Kim (2002) and Arthur and Rousseau (1996) in their study revealed that opportunities for growth and development increase the organizational outcome. Reputation of the organization was also found to influence the organizational outcome which is in line with the findings of Lievens (2007) who also found respectable employer to be a factor in shaping individual’s job satisfaction and willingness to stay in the organization.
Ensure that organizational culture aims to enhance employees’ performance. It is pointless to practice a certain culture for the sake of an obsolete tradition that serves no benefit. Whatever cultural element the management decides to introduce, it needs to keep this important aim in mind. Sometimes though, cultural practices are not formally introduced by the management but instead, a certain culture may have informally developed among the staff over time. Whatever its origin, any performance should be promptly discouraged, with the management offering advice on healthier suggestions or alternatives.
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