Performance Evaluation of Students, Teachers and Its Effects on Students in Bwari Area Council, Abuja
Objectives of the study
The primary objective of the study is as follows
- To find out if there is an appraisal system put in place to motivate teachers
- To find out techniques utilized for performance appraisal system carried out to encourage
- How frequently the competency assessment techniques of teachers are utilized.
Our focus in this chapter is to critically examine relevant literature that would assist in explaining the research problem and furthermore recognize the efforts of scholars who had previously contributed immensely to similar research. The chapter intends to deepen the understanding of the study and close the perceived gaps.
Performance appraisal is an organized, formalized, systematic process of assessing job related strengths and weaknesses of an individual appraisee with the ultimate aim that if he performs well such strengths are encouraged and reinforced and if he performs marginally his work habits can easily be identified and redirected in a manner conducive to the set objectives of the organization. Appraisals are criterion variables that measure job performance of employees at a particular period; a job is a collection of tasks. It is a process whereby an appraiser objectively communicates to an appraisee how he or she is performing the job in order to establish a plan of improvement through training and development, counseling, mentoring, retraining, or other remedial measures. Performance or productivity in this context refers to the degree of accomplishment of the tasks that make the employee’s job. According to Udeze (2000) performance appraisal is about evaluating the employee’s contribution to the productivity objectives of organizations. The issues of employee productivity and the need to evaluate them have always been a matter of prime concern to management and even to the employee. This is so because the employee needs a feedback on his output in the organization for a particular period. By supervising employee’s daily performance on the job, management is in a better position to appraise performance and provide feedback. The evaluation of performance may either be informal or formal. The informal appraisal which is based on the day-today working relationships of an employee and the superior provides an opportunity for the superior to judge the subordinate. This judgement is then communicated through conversation on the job or by on-the-spot examination of a particular task. A formal appraisal is through reporting the superior’s observations of an employee’s performance to management for necessary action. According to Gomez-Mejia et al. (2004) management has the overriding power over performance appraisal as a measure of achieving superior organizational goals. They opine that appraisal should be just more than a passive activity which criticizes or praises employees for their performance in the preceding year. Rather, appraisal must take a future-oriented view of what employees can do to achieve their potential in the organization, in which case, management must provide employees with feedback and coach them to higher levels of productivity. An important feature of an effective evaluation involves conducting appraisal on a regular basis, either every six months or annually. Irregularity in appraisal intervals can affect the employee morale, and also have negative consequences on overall organizational performance (Exley, 2000). Insisting on objective appraisal cannot be overemphasized because it is a motivational tool for employee productivity which contributes to organizational survival. Motivation as it relates to employee productivity is often behind the drive for self-actualization. Selfactualization is a state of self-fulfillment where people feel that they have realized their highest potential in life. It involves being creative and nurturing skills that provide opportunities for success. To a large extent therefore, employee motivation is fundamental as it influences behaviour which leads to productivity. This is critical because the enterprise survives on productivity. Performance assessment focuses on managing the objective, measurable results of a job or work group. Goals might include sales, costs, or services. Goals are specific, difficult, and objective. Productivity is an important measure of success or goal because getting more done with less resources such as; money or people, increases the organization’s profits.
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitute of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
The main focus of this study is to examine the performance evaluation of students, teachers and its effects on students in Bwari area council,abuja. Therefore, staff and students of selected secondary schools in Bwari area council,Abuja Nigeria form the population of the study.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of sixty (60) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which all were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 50 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The main focus of this study is to examine the performance evaluation of students, teachers and its effects on students in Bwari area council,abuja.. The study further ascertained if informing workers of their rating will help to improve performance. It also determine whether positive appraisal yields better result than negative appraisal.
Survey research design was employed for the study and with aid of convenient sampling, sixty (60) staff of selected secondary schools in the study area was selected as the participant of the study. The sources of data collection was both primary and secondary with the application of questionnaires as an instrument to gather the necessary data. The questionnaires were properly completed after being administered and this was a basis by which the primary data were collected. Textbooks, journals, articles, law reports, newspapers publications, were collected as secondary data, and also limitations to the study were indicated. The hypothesis was tested using chi-square test statistical tool (SPSS v.2.3) and the result were similar to those of the responses drawn from the questionnaires.
The continued success and growth of an organization depends on its ability and capacity to select, develop, assess, and retain the number and quality of employees it needs to meet its strategic objectives. An effective performance appraisal system is one of the measures that an organization employs to attain goals. The use of performance appraisal has become increasingly necessary because it is not easy, if not impossible, to give or assess the quality of an individual employee without proper evaluation.
Findings from the study reveals that Informing workers of their rating will help to improve performance. More so, positive appraisal can yield to better result in performance appraisal. Additionally the result of the study revealed that views of performance assessment differently depend on the employee’s particular needs and wants.
The study therefore concludes that as every organization pays its workers for their performance, it is imperative to compare what workers should do as evident from the performance standards with what they have actually done. Performance appraisal therefore, is an important management activity and technique for managerial effectiveness.
Base on the result of the study, the following recommendations were made:
- Because of the importance of performance appraisal in organizations it has to carefully, review the employee’s strengths and weaknesses against the requirements of envisaged future higher level responsibilities and make recommendations to management for decision-making.
- It is essential that the appraiser must comment on the evaluation made and also the appraisee should be allowed to verify, and agree or disagree, with the appraisal as a measure of checking the problems of subjective appraisal.
- Regulatory agencies for private and public organizations should step up oversight functions over issues of performance appraisal in privately-owned enterprises and Public liability Companies.
- Feedback on performance should always be provided to employees both as a means of behaviour modification and for performance improvement.
When standards of performance are set, employees should be allowed to use their initiative to realize them. This encourages self-control that fascinates employees of today.
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