Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Physico-chemical, Microbial and Sensory Properties of Cookies Produced From Wheat, Unripe Plantain and Soy Flour Blends

Physico-chemical, Microbial and Sensory Properties of Cookies Produced From Wheat, Unripe Plantain and Soy Flour Blends

Physico-chemical, Microbial and Sensory Properties of Cookies Produced From Wheat, Unripe Plantain and Soy Flour Blends

Chapter One

Objective of the Study

The objective of the study was therefore to evaluate the physic-chemical, microbial and sensory properties of cookies produced from wheat, unripe plantain and soy flour blends.



Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Wheat is the most important stable food crop for more than one third of the world population and contributes more calories and proteins to the world diet than any other cereal crops (Adams et al., 2002; Abd-EL-Haleem et al., 2008; Shewry, 2009). It is nutritious, easy to store and transport and can be processed into various types of food. Wheat is considered a good source of protein, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber (Shewry, 2007; Simmonds, 2009) although the environmental conditions can affect nutritional composition of wheat grains with its essential coating of bran, vitamins and minerals; it is an excellent health-building food. Wheat flour is used to prepare bread, produce biscuits, confectionary products, noodles and vital wheat gluten or seitan. Wheat is also used as animal feed, for ethanol production, brewing of wheat beer, wheat based raw material for cosmetics, wheat protein in meat substitutes and to make wheat straw composites. Wheat germ and wheat bran can be a good source of dietary fiber helping in the prevention and treatment of some digestive disorders (Simmonds, 2009).

Wheat has been cultivated in Nigeria for centuries. Ample evidence exists to show that wheat has been cultivated in Nigeria as early as 200BC, although the currently cultivated varieties are relatively recent introduction (Olabanji et al., 2007). However, Nigeria’s domestic wheat production has remained at a very low level in spite of the ever – rising demand for the crop. The constraints to the cultivation of wheat in most wheat growing areas in Nigeria include climatic requirements, appropriate agronomic practices and preference for the cultivation of vegetables. Development of improved agronomic practices in respect of land preparation, planting, nutrition, water management, crop protection, harvest and postharvest technology have been the major areas where researchers have concentrated their efforts (Shewry, 2007).

Wheat as an important industrial crop is the main raw material in feed mills, with bread, cake, biscuit, pasta, spaghetti, semovita, macaroni, containing reasonable amounts of wheat. The offal is used in compounding life stock feeds. After wheat harvest, the grain is separated from the stalks and chaff. The wheat stalks are used in a variety of applications: mulch, construction material, and as animal bedding. As food, wheat contributes more protein and calories to the diet than any other crop and world trade in wheat far exceeds the contributions of other grains put together (Olabanji et al., 2007).

  Importance of Wheat

Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum). The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis.

Wheat is grown on more land area than any other food crop (220.4 million hectares, 2014). World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize. Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st century. Global demand for wheat is increasing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods, whose consumption is increasing as a result of the worldwide industrialization process and the westernization of the diet.

Wheat is an important source of carbohydrates. Globally, it is the leading source of vegetal protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals but relatively low in protein quality for supplying essential amino acids.





Wheat (Triticum spp), Unripe plantain (Musa spp) and Soybean (Glycine max) used in this research work were purchased from a local market in Owo, Ondo State. The Wheat, Unripe plantain and Soybean were purchased wholesome, that is, it was free from rot and had no physical damage. The milk powder, sugar, margarine, baking powder, flavor and other ingredients used for biscuits production were also purchased from the same local market in Owo, Ondo state. The biscuit produced from Wheat, Plantain and Soybean was processed in the processing laboratory of Food Science and Technology. Equipment, chemicals (reagents) and other facilities used in the research work were obtained from the laboratories of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic Owo, Ondo State.


Wheat Flour Preparation

Wheat flour was produced as described by Adegunwa et al. (2015) (Fig. 1). The Wheat grains were dried sorted and cleaned to remove stones, dirt, and infested grains. The cleaned Wheat was then milled using a laboratory hammer mill and allowed to pass through a 250-micrometer mesh.




Table 4.1: Proximate composition (%) of cookies produced from wheat, unripe plantain and soybean





          This work shows the composite flour of wheat, unripe plantain and soybean flour as important ingredient in food formulation as increase in crude protein, crude fat, ash and high crude fibre contents were observed in the fortified cookies and this suggests that cookies could help reduce protein-energy malnutrition. Highest rating scores were recorded for WPS A (aroma and colour) and came second for taste and texture in all the attributes evaluated excluding overall acceptability, sample WPS E was generally accepted by consumers. In conclusion, the fortification of cereal, starch fruits (plantain) and legumes (soybean) proves to be useful especially in the production of snacks/cookies due to nutritional qualities soybean flour offers.


It is therefore recommended that the production and consumption of fortified cookies should be improved by adopting processing methods that further reduce the effect of antinutrient in soybean seed which can reduce its nutritional content.


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