Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Physicochemical and Sensory Composition of Juice Blend Extracted From Apple Coconut and Cucumber

Physicochemical and Sensory Composition of Juice Blend Extracted From Apple Coconut and Cucumber

Physicochemical and Sensory Composition of Juice Blend Extracted From Apple Coconut and Cucumber

Chapter One 

The Objective Of the Study

Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of juice blend extracted from apple, coconut and cucumber.



Apple (Origin and Development)

Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the most consumed fruit crops in the world. The major production areas are the temperate regions, however, because of its excellent storage capacity it is transported to distant markets covering the four corners of the earth. Transformation is a key to sustaining this demand – permitting the potential enhancement of existing cultivars as well as to investigate the development of new cultivars resistant to pest, disease, and storage problems that occur in the major production areas (Dandekar et al., 2006). An efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol utilizes leaf tissues from in vitro grown plants. Shoot regeneration is selected with kanamycin using the selectable kanamycin phosphotransferase (APH(3)II) gene and the resulting transformants confirmed using the scorable uidA gene encoding the bacterial beta-glucuronidase enzyme via histochemical staining. Transformed shoots are propagated, rooted to create transgenic plants that are then introduced into soil, acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse from where they are taken out into the orchard for field-testing (Dandekar et al., 2006).

There has been an increasing appreciation and understanding of the link between dietary fruit and vegetable intake and improved health in humans. The widespread and growing intake of apples and apple juice/products and their rich phytochemical profile suggest their important potential to affect the health of the populations (Hyson, 2011). Current clinical, in vitro, and in vivo data and builds upon earlier published reports indicate that apple may reduce the risk of chronic disease by various mechanisms, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell signaling effects. Exposure to apples and apple products has been associated with beneficial effects on risk, markers, and etiology of cancer, C-V disease, asthma, and Alzheimer’s disease; these products may also be associated with improved outcomes related to cognitive decline of normal aging, diabetes, weight management, bone health, pulmonary function, and G-I protection (Hyson, 2011).

Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in the postgenomic era. Apple cultivation is heavily dependent on climatic condition and is susceptible to several diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, insects, etc. Extensive research work has been carried out to standardize tissue culture protocols and utilize them in apple improvement (Bhatti and Jha, 2010).

Cultivation of Apple

Cultivation of the apple seems to have been practiced by the Greeks and Romans and, as a result of their travels and invasions, to have been spread by them throughout Europe and Asia.  Later cultivation was concentrated around the medieval monasteries.  Cultivars were selected and propagated in very early times, for grafting was known at least 2000 years ago.  By the end of the thirteenth century, many named cultivars were known, and from this time we get the names ‘Pearmain’ and ‘Costard’.  The history and romance of the apple has recently been summarized in The Book of Apples by Morgan and Richards (1993).

Until the latter half of the twentieth century most of the world’s apple cultivars were chance seedlings selected by fruit growers.  More than 10,000 cultivars are documented, yet only a few dozen are grown on a commercial scale worldwide (Way et al., 1990).  In 1983, the best known cultivars in the world were all chance seedlings found in the eighteenth or nineteenth centuries, of which many were derived in North America: ‘Golden Delicious’ (6.3 million t, origin US), ‘Delicious’ (3.0 million t, origin US) ‘Cox’s Orange Pippin’ (1.7 million t, origin England), ‘Rome Beauty’ (0.8 million t; origin US), ‘Belle de Boskoop’ (0.7 million t, origin The Netherlands), ‘Granny Smith’ (0.6 million t, origin Australia), ‘Jonathan’ (0.5 million t, origin US), ‘Reinette du Canada’ (0.4 million t, origin France), ‘McIntosh’ (0.3 million t, origin Canada), and ‘Worcester Pearmain’ (0.3 million t, origin England).

The introduction of apples into the United States as seeds and the replanting of seeds obtained from cider mills resulted in literally tens of millions of seedlings being grown and evaluated by fruit growers.  The nurseryman Jonathan Chapman of Leominster, Massachusetts, known as the legendary Johnny Appleseed, is credited with distributing apple seeds hum the cider mills of Western Pennsylvania throughout the wilderness of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois in the eighteenth century (Morgan and Richards, 1993).  The evaluation of these seedlings was the major achievement of United States pomology in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.  The ‘Delicious’ apple (discovered in Iowa, 1872) still dominates United States production, and ‘Golden Delicious’ (found in West Virginia, 1905) dominates Europe.  Other cultivars are important regionally such as ‘McIntosh’ in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, ‘Jonathan’ in the Midwest, ‘York Imperial’ in the Shenandoah Valley, ‘Granny Smith’ in Australia, ‘Cox’s Orange Pippin’ in England, and ‘Belle de Boskoop’ in The Netherlands.

Chemical Ingredients/Nutritional Values

Apples, rich source of phytochemicals, are widely consumed and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, C-V disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol.  Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants.  The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals (Boyer and Liu, 2004).

The main constituents that contribute to the apples vast usefulness and great taste are hard to narrow down.  Over 20 have been documented in the unpeeled fruit alone to contribute a vast amount of biological activities.  Those with known biological activities located in either the fruit or peel or both are: Alpha-Linolenic-Acid, Asparagine, D-Categin, Isoqurctrin, Hyperoside, Ferulic-Acid, Farnesene, Neoxathin, Phosphatidyl-Choline, Reynoutrin, SinapicAcid, Caffeic-Acid, Chlorogenic-Acid, P-Hydroxy-Benzoic-Acid, PCoumaric-Acid, Avicularin, Lutein, Quercitin, Rutin, Ursolic-Acid, Protocatechuic-Acid, and Silver. In addition to these phytochemicals, the whole fruit contains many more for which the biological activity is not yet known.  Many of the benefits of the apple come from enzymes and flavonoids (Smith, 2015).

In one medium apple weighing about five ounces the following constituents of vitamins and minerals are found: Vitamin A, B1, B2, and B6, Niacin, Pantothenic acid, Folic acid, Vitamin C and Vitamin E, Calcium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Phosphorus, Potassium, Selenium, Sodium, and Zinc. The fats in the apple contain no cholesterol. Instead they are a blend of lipids, saturated, unsaturated and monounsaturated fats.  In addition to fats, the apple contains the other macronutrients of proteins, and carbohydrates. Other phytochemicals include; Tryptophan, Threonine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lycine, Methionine, Cystine, Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Valine, Argenine, Histidine, Alanine, Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, Glycine, Proline, and Serine, and trace amounts of Boron and Cobalt.  There are four to five grams of soluble and insoluble fiber per apple. This fiber is from cellulose, pectin and lignin.  The sugars of fructose and sucrose make up about 9-12% of the fruit and give it its sweet taste, while the tartness comes from the malic, tartaric, and citric acids.  The tannins, making up 0.2%, give it an astringent cooling and thirst-quenching effect. Amygdaline, naturally occurring cyanide is found in the seeds (Smith, 2015).

Apples contain dietary fiber in their skins and core.  About 10% of an apple is made up of carbohydrate and 4% is made up from a variety of vitamins and minerals.  The rest of the apple, more than 80%, is water.  A medium-sized eating apple contains about 40 calories; one kilogram (2.2 lb) of fresh apples provides approximately 2100 kJ (500 kcal) of energy.  Excluding the peel and core of apples from the diet halves, the amount of vitamin C and dietary fiber consumed makes little difference to the sugar intake. Washing the skin to remove any contaminants is advisable.  Apple pips taste a little bitter, like almonds, and contain traces of cyanide, but not enough to be harmful.  Apple peels contain various phytochemicals with unknown nutritional value, including quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B4 (Barnes, 2015).





Apple, Coconut and Cucumber were obtained from the local market in Owo, Ondo State. The fruits were processed in food processing laboratory in the department of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic Owo, Ondo State.


 Extraction of Juice from Fruits

Preparation of Apple Juice

Quality traits like uniformity in size, colour, shape and abrasion-free were considered in choosing the apple. The selected ones were sorted and washed thoroughly under running water after which they were washed with 5% hypochlorite solution to get rid of the surface microbes and contaminations. The apples were immediately rinsed severally with distilled water. The pericarp was removed and skin scraped with the aid of stainless knife and the fleshes cut into small pieces into bowl. The sliced apple were blended with the aid of Sumeet Food Processor (Model A), then homogenized in a blender and filtered with the use of readymade double muslin cloth. It was packaged immediately and stored in airtight screw cap sterilized glass bottles then refrigerated at 5oC.




Table 4.1: Physicochemical Properties of Juice Samples




Fruits juice is well known for their nutritious and sweet properties, the combination of apple, coconut and cucumber juice have proven to be a good source of nutrient, the ash content of the samples is a above 15.20% which indicates that each sample possess high quality minerals, the pH value of the samples were also high. From the sensory properties of the samples, the results revealed that all the samples are accepted in terms of colour, taste, aroma, texture and overall acceptability, though sample CCJ was preferred.


Based on the above study it is therefore recommended that the use of apple, coconut and cucumber in the production juice is good and nutritious, it is also observed that the juice produced from these fruits are also accepted in all sensory parameters therefore the production of the juice should be encourage by food industries, the juice can also contributes in controlling micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries like Nigeria.



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