Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Physicochemical, Microbial and Consumer Acceptability of Spiced Kokoro Produced From the Blends of Maize and Soy Flour

Physicochemical, Microbial and Consumer Acceptability of Spiced Kokoro Produced From the Blends of Maize and Soy Flour

Physicochemical, Microbial and Consumer Acceptability of Spiced Kokoro Produced From the Blends of Maize and Soy Flour

Chapter One

Objective of the Study

            This research study aimed to determine the physicochemical, microbial and consumer acceptability of spiced soy kokoro produced from maize-soy flour blends fortified with ginger and pepper.



  Maize (Zea may L)

Corn, commonly known as maize (Zea mays L.), is annual crop that belongs to the family of grass i.e. Poaceae. Maize is also recognized by different synonyms such as zea, corn, silk corn etc. In Hindi it is called Makka and Barajovar. Maize is mother grain of Americans and is considered as the earliest cultivar of the new world. It is most widely distributed world’s plant. Multitudes of maize subspecies are identified and classified depending upon the extent of starch each have (Kumar and Jhariya, 2013). Maize is a crop having short life cycle and requires warm weather, appropriate apprehension and management. It is valuable livestock feed, as human food and raw material for several industries.


Maize is native of South America but extensively cultivated in various other countries as well like India, Thailand, Pakistan and China, and in several parts of Philippines. It is considered as staple article of food in some islands and provinces. It is widely grown in temperate and tropic regions with well drained and fertile soil (Kumar and Jhariya, 2013). After wheat and rice, maize is the third most cultivated crops globally (David and Adams, 2005). Different varieties of maize which include; flour corn, popcorn, dent corn, flint corn, sweet corn, Amylomaize and striped maize have been identified and cultivated by farmers in different parts of the world.

Maize is produce extensively in all agro-ecological zones of Nigeria, with its largest production in the Northern part of the country. Yellow and white maize are widely cultivated in Nigeria due to it adaptability. Maize production belt of Nigeria include; Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Yobe including Obubra (Cross River State), where the crop has been cultivated for multi-utilization. About 34-98.3m or 48% hectares of land is cultivated to Nigerian maize production. Maize grain produced in Nigeria are sold as a commercial crop for industrial, agro-based, medical, pharmaceutical and other related uses (Iken and Amusa, 2004).

USA produces the highest percentage of world maize with an annual average production of 310 million metric tons. United States cultivates 43% of global maize. 30 million hectares of land is cultivated to maize in USA. Other countries of high maize production include, China, which produces about 162.5 million metric tons of different varieties of maize, which gives about 20% of world maize production. Brazil cultivates an average of 55 million metric tons of maize annually (Smriti, 2015). Argentina, gives an annual average production of 20 million tones with region like Pampa, being its production belt. India is the 6th maize heavy producers, giving it annual average production at 18 million metric tons, with areas like UP, Bihar being the production belt. Mexico, France, South Africa and Nigeria are also leading countries in maize production (Smriti, 2015).

 Nutrition Value of Maize

Maize kernel is an edible and nutritive part of the plant. It also contains vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (niacin), vitamin B3 (riboflavin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), folic acid, selenium, N-p-coumaryltryptamine, and N-ferrulyltryptamine. Potassium is a major nutrient present which has good significance because an average human diet is deficient in it (Kumar and Jhariya, 2013). Roasted maize kernels are also used as coffee substitute (Breadley, 1992).

Maize germ contains about 45–50% of oil that is used in cooking, salads and is obtained from wet milling process (Orthoefer et al., 2003). The oil contains 14% saturated fatty acids, 30%monounsaturated fatty acids, and 56% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The refined maize oil contains linoleic acid 54–60%, oleic acid 25–31%, palmitic acid 11–13%, stearic acid 2–3% and linolenic acid 1% (Sen et al., 2006). The two main forms of vitamin E present in our diet are alpha (α) and gamma (γ) tocopherols. Maize oil is amongst the rich sources of these tocopherols, especially γ-tocopherol and their reported concentration was 21.3 and 94.1 mg/100 g, respectively (Sen et al., 2006). Maize silk contains various constituents essential for our diet such as maizenic acid, fixed oils, resin, sugar, mucilage, salt, and fibers (Kumar and Jhariya, 2013).

Utilization of Maize

There are varieties of products that can be derived after application of food processing methods like dry milling, wet milling and alkali processing to make it consumable for human beings as discussed above. Commonly, maize is used to make flour, oil, starch, grits, flakes, popcorn, etc. (Ricciarelli et al., 2001). Few very popular products derived from maize are discussed below.

Degerminated flour

This consists mostly of the endosperm and has content of B vitamins. It is used by brewers as a starch medium for the action of barley malt in the preparation of wort for the production of beer. It is also used to make chapatti or bread in the northern region of India. The flour is supplemented with green leafy vegetables to make it more nutritious and healthy. The chapatti is famous around the Punjab as ‘makki di roti’ that is served with well-cooked mustard leaves along with butter.





Maize (Zea may) and Soybean (Glycine max) used in this research work was purchased from a local market in Owo, Ondo State. Maize and soybean was purchased wholesome, that is, it was free from rot and had no physical damage and ingredient such as ginger, pepper, salt, sugar etc were also purchased from the same local market. The kokoro produced from maize-soy flour fortified with ginger and pepper was processed in the processing laboratory of Food Science and Technology. Equipment, chemicals (reagents) and other facilities used in the research work were obtained from the laboratories of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic Owo, Ondo State.


Production of Maize Flour

Maize flour was produced according to the procedure described by Okoruwa (2005). Dried maize kernels were sorted to remove dirt’s and impurities, thereafter it was milled using attrition mill and packaged into high density polyethylene film (Figure I).




Table 4.1: Proximate composition of spiced kokoro produced from maize-soybean flour





            Variety and nutrient adequacy are factors of importance in the formulation of food for the benefit of people. Spiced kokoro is an indigenous snacks consumed by adverse and immense number of people. The nutritional content of spiced kokoro produced with the inclusion soybean fortified with ginger and pepper indicate that soybean is a good source protein, ash, fat and crude fibre. From the result, MS 4 was observed to have the lowest moisture content indicating longer shelflife of the sample and also it was observed that MS 4 has the highest protein, fat, and fibre content while MS 1 have the highest moisture content and ash content. MS 2 was observed to have the highest carbohydrate content. The high moisture content of MS 1 result in high number of colonies for yeast and total viable count, the inclusion of ginger and pepper help inhibit the growth of microorganisms due to their antimicrobial properties. MS 1 was considered the best due to its palatability (taste) and was generally accepted, followed by MS 2, MS 3 and MS 4. In conclusion, the blends of maize flour and soybean flour fortified with ginger and pepper can help increase the nutritional content of the snacks, which can help control malnutrition in Nigeria.


It is recommended that the blends of cereals with legumes such as soybean for the production of local snacks should considered since it increase the nutritional content of the products. The blends can be supported up to 20 % ratio of legume inclusion in order to retain its taste, texture and aroma, this sensory attributes will entice the consumer of purchasing the local snacks. The fortification of snacks with spiced like ginger and pepper is recommended for populace because of its antimicrobial properties.


  • Addo, A.A. and Oguntona, C.R.B. (2003). Nutritional Value of Soyabeans. Paper Presented at Training Workshop of Extension Workers in Soyabean Processing and Utilization, FMAWA/RD/UNAAB Soyabean Popularisation, April-June 2003.
  • Adelakun, O.E., Adejuyitan, J.A., Olajide, J.O. and Alabi, B.K (2005). Effect of soybean substitution on some physical, compositional and sensory properties of kokoro (a local maize snack). Europe Food Res Technology. (220):79-82
  • Adjebeng –Asem S, and Osho S.M. (2002).The status of soybean production, processing and utilization in Nigeria. A Baseline survey. An activity of the /DRC/IITA soybean utilization project.  Phase II, IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria, 303.
  • Afzal, M., Al-hadidi, D., Menon, M., Pesek, J. and Dhami, M.S. (2011). Ginger: An Ethnomedical, Chemical and Pharmacological Review. Drug Interact 18(3-4): 159-190.
  • Ahmed, M. (2004). Soybean; the meat that grows on plants.Farmers Bulletin. (1617). United State Drug Agency.
  • Ali, B.H., Blunden, G., Tanira, M.O. and Nemmar, A. (2008). Some phytochemical pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): a review of recent research. Food and Chemical Toxicology, (46):409–420.
  • Allard, R.W. (2000). Principles of plant breeding. Wiley, NY, USA 339.
  • Almeida-Dominguez, N.G., Valencia. M.E. and Higuera- Ciapara, I. (2000). Formulation of corn-based snacks with high nutritive value: Biological and sensory evaluation. Journal of Food Science, (55), 228-331.
  • Andrews, J. (2004). Peppers: The domesticated Capsicums. Austin: University of Texas Press. 125.