Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Physicochemical Properties of Sorrel Drink (Zobo Drink) Spiced With Different Spicing Agents

Physicochemical Properties of Sorrel Drink (Zobo Drink) Spiced With Different Spicing Agents

Physicochemical Properties of Sorrel Drink (Zobo Drink) Spiced With Different Spicing Agents

Chapter One

Objective of the Study

            The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of sorrel drinks (zobo drink) spread with different spicing agents.



Hibiscus sabdariffa

 Description of Hibiscus sabdariffa

            Hibiscus has more than three hundred species distributed in tropical and subtropical regions around the world and are used as ornamental plants. Research on have shown that some species of Hibiscus possess certain medicinal properties of which Hibiscus sabdariffa is one (Yadong et al., 2005). Hibiscus sabdariffa is commonly named as “red sorrel” or “roselle”. Even though permeable soil is the best, Roselle can adapt to a variety of soil in a warmer and more humid climate (Neuwinger, 2000). Hibiscus sabdariffa, a member of Malvaceae family, is a known medicinal plant with a worldwide fame (Abbas et al., 2011) and the plant can be found in almost all warm countries such as India, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam, Sudan, Egypt and Mexico (Chewonarin et al., 1999; Rao, 2006). Roselle is mainly cultivated to be consumed and the main producers of Roselle blossoms are Egypt, Sudan, Mexico, Thailand and China. Other hibiscus varieties are planted for their fibers they produce (Naturland, 2002).

Origin of Hibiscus sabdariffa

There is a big argument about the origin of Roselle among different scholars. Cobley (2005) suggested Roselle is a native plant of West Africa and from there it was carried to other parts of the world such as Asia and America, whereas in others opinion, Roselle was originated from India (Mat-Isa et al., 2005) and Saudi Arabia (Abu-Tarboush et al., 2007).

  Varieties of Hibiscus sabdariffa

            Among numerous verities of Hibiscus, Hibiscus altissima and Hibiscus sabdariffa are the commonest and better introduced. Hibiscus altissima is branchless plant with yellow flowers and red or green colored calyxes. Though this species is not used for food, this plant is more economically important than Hibiscus sabdariffa because of its high fiber content. The other distinct type Hibiscus sabdariffa or “Roselle” grows in a bush with many branches. The flowers of Roselle are axillaries or in terminal racemes, the petals are white with reddish center at the base of the stamina column and this species is widely used as food (Morton, 2007).

Composition of Hibiscus sabdariffa

Roselle is mainly cultivated for its calyx, which is of three types: green, red and dark red. The red calyxes are the most used are characterized by their concentration anthocyanin. Delphinidin 3-Sambubioside and Cyanidin3-Sambubioside are the major anthocyanin. Roselle is also rich in organic acids, minerals, amino acids, carotene, vitamin C and total sugar in its calyx, leaves and seeds at variable levels depending on the variety and geographical area (Mady et al., 2009). According to Manita (1999), a number of compounds have also been isolated and characterized from Roselle including flavonoids, anthocyanidins, triterpernoids, steroids and alkaloids. Nutrient contents of different part of Hibiscus sabdariffa per 100 gram are clearly stated in table 1.





            Dry calyces of H. sabdariffa and fresh wet form of pepper, ginger rhizomes and garlic bulbs were obtained from local market in Owo, Ondo, State, Nigeria. The zobo drink was processed in the Processing Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, the analysis was also carried out in Chemistry Laboratory in Department of Food Science and Technology of Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State


Preparation of spice extracts

One hundred grams of each of the spices were separately chopped into small pieces with a clean stainless steel knife. The chopped spices were then blended into 50 ml de-ionized water with a Kenwood blender having stainless steel blades until smooth pastes were obtained. The pastes were diluted further with 100 ml deionized water and filtered using a clean Muslin cloth. The resulting extracts were stored in clean bottles inside a refrigerator (5°C) until needed for use in zobo preparation.




Table 4.1: Sensory attributes of spiced zobo drinks





From the results obtained in the above experiment, it was observed that sample had the highest value for TTA, TSS and specific gravity and with the least pH value. It was concluded that sample A, B and C are more acceptable to be consumed by the young people simply because of the high amount of Sugar, and some added additives hence it has high soluble solid. It was also concluded that sample D and E are good for old people because of low amount of dissolved sugar and some other solid. Hence the addition of grape, lime and honey make the samples to be of nutritional and health benefits to the consumers.


It is therefore recommended that zobo drink could be improved nutritionally and for health purpose by adding the above spices and this work is therefore recommended to be carried out by other researchers.


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