Pineapple Wine Fermentation Production Using Brewer’s Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae)
The Objective of the Study
The main objective of the study is to produce pineapple wine using aerobic and anaerobic formation process with the use of brewer’s yeast as organic catalyst. The aim of the study is to get pure alcoholic wine at the end of the study and at the same time ascertain the effect of brewer’s yeast on formation of fruit into wine. The aim will also be to assess the performance of brewer yeast on alcoholic production of wine from pineapple juice through fermentation. The research will also determine the efficiency of production of alcohol in the form of wine from pineapple juice using brewer’s yeast,
The study will be of benefit to farmers and juice industries as the findings of this study will inform decisions with regards to the preservation and storage of pineapple in particular and fruits in general. The study will also highlight the benefit of brewer’s yeast in wine production using any kind of fruit. The study will also be of great benefit to home made wine producers in enabling them know the procedures effective for the production of wine from any kind of fruit. The findings of the study will also serve as a source of references to fellow researcher.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Origin and Distribution of Pineapple
Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is the second harvest of importance after bananas, contributing to over 20 % of the world production of tropical fruits (COVECA, 2002). Nearly over 70% of the pineapple is consumed as fresh fruit in producing countries especially in Africa such as Nigeria. Its origin has been traced to Brazil and Paraguay in the Amazonic basin where the fruit was domesticated. It has been defined as the most probable area of origin. The zone comprised of upper Panama and Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina, including the northern Amazonian forest and the semi-arid regions of Brazil, Venezuela and Guyanas (Medina, et al., 2005).
Worldwide distribution and production started by 1500 when pineapple was propagated in Europe and the tropical regions of the world (Medina, et al., 2005). The most wide spread variety is Cayena lisa (smooth cayenne) which was first introduced in Europe from French Guyana. It was until late 14th century when canned pineapple was produced commercially in Hawaii (FAO, 2004).
Thailand, Philippines, Brazil and China are the main pineapple producers in the world supplying nearly 50 % of the total output (FAO, 2004). Other important producers include India, Nigeria, Kenya, Indonesia, México and Costa Rica and these countries provide most of the remaining fruit available (50%) (Medina et al., 2005).
Morphology of Pineapple
Pineapple plant is a short herbaceous perennial with 30-80cm trough-shaped and pointed leaves 30-100 cm long, surrounding a thick stem. This shape of the plant has to drive water onto the stem. This water might be absorbed by axils. The early inflorescences has about 100-200 flowers (Sarah et al., 1997; COVECA, 2002). Flowers of pineapple are spirally placed and each is supported by bracteas. Each flower consists of 3 calyxes, 3 bluish corollas, 6 filaments and a carpel with three parts of stigma. Inflorescence goes to bloom about 3 weeks and it blooms from down to up. Pineapples are auto sterile and fruits developed are parthenocarpic. (Elfic, 2004).
A temperature range between 23 to 24°C is optimal for growing pineapple (FAO, 2002). When ambient temperature drops to 10-16°C, fruit growth is constrained. Plants may stand sub-freezing temperatures for very short periods. Conversely, exposure to temperatures well over 30°C results in heat damage due to increased respiration rate and metabolism and impaired nutrient absorption (Bartholomew and Kadziman, 1977).
Pineapple production regions are usually confined to altitudes below 800m above sea level, although Kenya reports production fields located between 1400 and 1800m, and Malaysia orchards as high as 2400m (Davies, 1994). When pineapple is grown at altitudes greater than 1000m above sea level, smaller fruits are produced; the pulp has less attractive colour, flavour and tartness are elevated. Plant growth occurs within a temperature range of between 21°C and 35°C and an annual rainfall of about up to 1100mm per annum and it should be evenly distributed. The optimal pH for growth is between 5.5 and 6.2 (Sarah et al, 1997; COVECA, 2002).
Variety of Pineapple Cultivated
There are several cultivars with different sugar brix. According to COVECA (2002), Cayena lisa contains 19% sugar brix, Spanish from Singapore (10%-12% sugar brix), Green Selacia (10%-12% sugar brix), Queen (14%-18% sugar brix), Red Spanish (12% sugar brix), Perola (13%-16% sugar brix), Perolera (12% sugar brix). However, several new varieties have been introduced to improve the quality of the fruit for the international markets such as MD2 (Golden ripe, Extra sweet and Maya gold). These varieties are hybrids that were developed in Hawaii from Cayena lisa with an average weight ranging from 1.3 to 2.5 kg. It has an intense orange to yellow-orange colour and a high sugar content of 15 to17° Brix. The fruit are sweet, compact and fibrous. Main differences found with respect to the Cayena lisa variety are: better resistance to internal darkening, lesser ascorbic acid content more prone to rotting and sensitive to Phytophthora (COVECA, 2002; FAO, 2002).
The La Josefina variety was released in 1996 for the fresh fruit market (FAO, 2002). It is a hybrid developed from other two clones. Its production cycle is annual with a generation of 2 to 3 suckers per plant. Average fruit weight is 1.1 to 1.3 kg and contains an elevated sugar concentration (17 to 22°Brix). Differences with respect to the Cayena lisa variety are: longer shelf life, greater sugar content and resistance to black heart disorder and shorter production cycles. Finally, variety RL41 is a hybrid obtained from cultivars Cayena lisa and “Manzana” with an average weight of 1.4 to 2 kg and a high sugar content, 15 to 18° Brix. Compared to Cayena lisa, this variety has a greater ascorbic acid content and shorter production cycles, as well as lesser resistance to rotting but more resistant to flower induction (FAO, 2002).
MATERIALS AND METHOD
The pineapple((Ananas comosus) ) used were bought from Eke Awka market and identified by Augustin(botanist) Department of Botany Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka.
The materials used are listed as follows: inoculating loop, Bunsun Buurner, spatula, petri dishes, rubber containers, blender, autoclave, kitchen knife, Durham tubes, hydrometer, limus paper and muslin cloth.
Sodium metabisulphite, ethanol, distile water, Streptomycin and brewers yeast(S. cerevisiae).
Table 1: Physicochemical Properties Of The Pineaple Fermentation Before Addition Of Fermentable Substrate And After The Addition Of Fermentable Substrate (5% Sucrose)
DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The experiment was conducted to study the effect of baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on the fermentation of pineapple juice into wine. The study revealed that the sugar levels in the wine produced decreased with time at different concentration levels. The nutritional composition of the fresh pineapple juice and the wine produced showed that the sugar content of the fresh pineapple juice was higher than that of the wine.
Titratable acidity (citric acid) of the wine present was higher than the fresh juice. This finding agrees to what Fleet (1998) noted. According to fleet(1998), wine acid composition is made up of citric acid, tartaric acid, and some traces of acids such as lactic acid which replaces malic acid during malo-lactic fermentation.
The vitamin C content of the fresh juice was higher than the wine. Reducing and non-reducing sugars, protein, vitamin A and B, malic and lactic acids were all present in the fresh juice as well as the wine and Alcohol content of the wine was also higher than the fresh juice. Methanol was however absent in both the fresh juice and wine.
Findings also indicated that microbial analysis of the fresh pineapple juice revealed that yeast species (Sacharomyces sp), mould organisms (Aspergillus sp.) and bacteria species (Lactobacillus sp, Gluconobacta sp. Streptococcus sp. and Leuconostoc sp.) were present but were eliminated when the juice was sterilized. However, the baker used were successfully recovered from the wine produced . The room and must temperature showed a similar pattern with the fermentation room temperature ranging between 25.60C to 28.20C and the must temperature ranged between 20.10C to 290C. The findings of this study as noted also agrees to what Mountney Gould (1988),Fleet (1998) and Robinson (2006), reported . According to them, yeasts perform best within an optimum temperature range of 200C to 300C. They further stated that higher temperatures during fermentation may have adverse effect on the wine in stunning the yeast to inactivity and even “boiling off” some of the flavours of the wines. Keller (2010) in his work on fermentation stated that temperature range of 200C to 300C favour red wine fermentation whilst a temperature range of 100C to 200C was conducive for fermenting white wine. This findings made in this study all agreed to this statement made by them.
The finding made also showed that glucose content of the pineapple must gradually decreased in the yeast, after days of incubation period. The glucose content of the wine was noted to be high in the control treatments than in the yeasts at different concentration.
The sucrose content of the pineapple must also decreased during fermentation in the baker’s yeast. The yeast concentrations also showed a similar trend in sucrose reduction during fermentation. The sucrose content of the wine was high in the controls treatments than in the yeasts at different concentration.
Fructose content of pineapple must reduced in the baker’s yeast during fermentation. The different yeast concentrations also recorded reduction of fructose during the incubation period. Again yeast at both concentrations had lower fructose than the control.
Total sugar content of the pineapple must decreased during the incubation period in the baker’s yeast. It was further observed that alcohol content of pineapple must increase during fermentation in the baker’s yeast treatments.
The seasonality of pineapple fruits as well as poor handling and transportation of the fruits, absence of industrial utilization of the pineapples as raw material, rejection from the international market coupled with inadequate local market conditions contribute to the high post-harvest losses of pineapple in Nigeria. Measures put in place to reduce this wastage were very effective. This included the extraction of pineapple juice and conversion of the juice to wine by fermentation. These measures would greatly enhance the keeping qualities of pineapple juice wine, thus reducing wastage.
The pineapple wine had sufficient levels of vitamins A, B and C making it nutritious, palatable and nourishing drink hence the yeast strains had a positive effect on the musts during the fermentation. The yeasts were very efficient in converting the natural sugar in the pineapple juice into alcohol. This also improved the flavour, colour, aroma and taste which made it highly acceptable to the panellist; and improved the keeping quality of the pineapple wine.
Based on the findings it is recommended that Pineapple should be fermented into wine as wine has higher demand with high economic value in the market in that pineapple wine is highly acceptable; more so, fermentation is low energy requiring and efficient in extending the keeping quality of pineapple juice.
Suggestion For Further Study
Subsequent experiment should be carried out on using other beneficial and edible microorganisms and yeast.
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