Political Leadership and Development in Nigeria. A Study of Buhari’s Administration 2015-2023
AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to assess the extent to which political leadership has promoted infrastructural development in President Buhari’s administration between 2015 and 2019. However, the specific objectives of this study are:
- To examine the extent to which political leadership has enhanced infrastructural development in President Buhari’s administration between 2015 and 2019.
- To study the challenges hindering infrastructural development in Nigeria since the return to political leadership from 2015 to 2019.
- To identify ways through which political leadership can foster infrastructural development in President Buhari’s administration
REVIEWED OF RELATED LITERATURE
Theoretical Framework and Literature Review
Structural functional theory was adopted for this study. Proponents of structural functional theory include Émile Durkheim, Auguste Comte, Talcott Parsons, Almond and Powel, etc. It is a theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. The Nigerian state is a victim of high-level corruption causing the retardation of national development and a ceaseless cycle of crisis arising from peoples’ discontent against the government (Ake 1995:31) This approach looks at society through a macro-level orientation, which is a broad focus on the social structures that shape society as a whole, and believes that society has evolved like organisms. This approach looks at both social structure and social functions (Kingbury & Scanjoni,1993). Structural functional theory sees society as a mosaic of functions and structures that perform them. For example, in order to survive, a society needs to educate its children, produce goods, govern its affairs and provide security for its members. These are functions and they necessitate a number of structures such as schools, industries, parliaments, courts, armed forces, etc to perform their roles. Understandably, when these structures perform their roles or functions properly, there will be progress in the society and in fact, society inherently moves in the direction of order and stability, which will subsequently lead to development. Consequently, from a structural-functionalist perspective, development is achieved where existing social structures perform their functions adequately, supported by the requisite culture, norms and values. It is essential, especially in the art of leadership and good governance. The failure of political leadership could be attributed to the lack of development, that failure could be regarded as one unit among the entire structure which ought to function together to attain the height of development
The Concept of Political Leadership
Leadership: leadership is a process of social influence by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organisation in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent (Chemers, 2002).
Political Leadership: refers to the ruling class that bears the responsibility of managing the affairs and resources of a political entity by setting and influencing policy priorities affecting the territory through different decision-making structures and institutions created for the orderly development of the territory. It could also be described as the human element that operates the machineries of government on behalf of an organised territory. This includes people who hold decision making positions in government, and people who seek those positions, whether by means of election, coup d’état, appointment, electoral fraud, conquest, right of inheritance or other means (Wikipedia,2009).
The Concept of Underdevelopment
According Rodney (1972), underdevelopment results from unequal interaction between two societies. The more this unequal relationship lasts, the more the backwardness of the less privileged ones. In other words, development is a sign that the developed and underdeveloped societies came into contact when they were in different levels. In in his Political Economy of Africa, Ake (1981), dwelt extensively on the contemporary features of African economy and how they might be changed in the future. He traced the history of Africa from the colonial period to the neo-colonial period. He also dwelt extensively on the strategies which the national leaders have adopted to engineer development but these strategies failed to work because of the international atmosphere which make the plan unrealistic. In his opinion, “the underdevelopment of Africa is as a result of its long contact with capitalism, and pointed out that the national bourgeoisie contributes a lot to the underdevelopment of Africa through their connivance with the international bourgeoisies by applying wrong and incompatible policies. He went further than Rodney (1972) to show the conditions that led to the emergence of the petty bourgeoisie, the instrument of this accumulation and the national post-colonial state. Contrary to the definition of Rodney and Ake where the former dwelled more on the unequal relationship between two societies while the latter emphasized on the long contact with colonialism and the international bourgeoisie. Onah (2006) opines that all development visions and programmes fail in Nigeria because of poor handling by corrupt and poor/hungry politicians/bureaucrats, leading to growing poverty symptoms, including electoral frauds; untrue and inefficient representatives; violence: religious crises, crises in Middle belt and Niger Delta regions, hostage taking and cult; food insecurity; low agricultural production; illiteracy (that also weakens democracy); crime; high mortality and morbidity rates; prostitution and poor health and national image; low GDP and GNP and high unemployment rate, all these are what makes Nigeria to be underdeveloped.
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried to examine a Political leadership and development in Nigeria. A study of Buhari’s administration 2015-2023. Residents in Abuja form the population of the study.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only seventy-seven (77) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 77 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain Political leadership and development in Nigeria. A study of buhari’s administration 2015-2023. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing Political leadership and development in Nigeria. A study of Buhari’s administration 2015-2023
This study was on a Political leadership and development in Nigeria. A study of buhari’s administration 2015-2023. Three objectives were raised which included: 2019. To examine the extent to which political leadership has enhanced infrastructural development in President Buhari’s administration between 2015 and 2019, to study the challenges hindering infrastructural development in Nigeria since the return to political leadership from 2015 to 2019 and to identify ways through which political leadership can foster infrastructural development in President Buhari’s administration. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from selected secondary schools in residents in Abuja. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).
In conclusion, the political leadership of Nigeria has been a major factor in the country’s development, and the administration of President Buhari from 2015 to 2023 has been no exception. Buhari’s administration has made efforts to tackle corruption, promote economic growth, and enhance security in the country.
The administration implemented various policies and programs to address the challenges facing Nigeria, such as the Social Investment Programme (SIP), the Economic Recovery and Growth Plan (ERGP), and the National Security Strategy (NSS). These initiatives have yielded some positive results, such as the reduction in the country’s unemployment rate, improved access to social services, and progress in the fight against terrorism.
However, there have also been challenges and criticisms of the administration, particularly regarding the slow pace of progress, the government’s response to security challenges, and concerns about human rights abuses. In addition, Nigeria still faces major developmental challenges, including infrastructure deficits, social inequality, and poor governance at various levels of government.
Overall, the political leadership of Nigeria remains critical to the country’s development, and there is a need for continued efforts to strengthen institutions, promote good governance, and address the underlying structural challenges facing the country. The administration of President Buhari has made some progress in these areas, but much more needs to be done to build a more prosperous, stable, and equitable Nigeria.
Based on the study of Buhari’s administration and its impact on political leadership and development in Nigeria, the following recommendations are suggested:
- Strengthen the rule of law: The Nigerian government needs to improve the enforcement of laws and regulations to create an environment that is conducive to economic growth and development. This includes promoting transparency and accountability, reducing corruption, and ensuring equal access to justice.
- Enhance infrastructure development: Nigeria needs to invest in critical infrastructure, such as roads, power, and transportation, to support economic growth and development. This will require public-private partnerships and the promotion of foreign investment to provide the necessary funding.
- Improve the quality of education: Nigeria needs to improve the quality of education to develop a skilled workforce that can contribute to the country’s economic development. This includes increasing funding for education, improving teacher training, and promoting vocational education.
- Address security challenges: The Nigerian government needs to prioritize security and take proactive steps to address the various security challenges facing the country, including insurgency, banditry, and kidnapping. This includes providing adequate funding and resources to security agencies and addressing the underlying social and economic factors that contribute to insecurity.
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