Public Health Project Topics

Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Among Voluntary Blood Donors in Central Hospital, Auchi

Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Among Voluntary Blood Donors in Central Hospital, Auchi

Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Among Voluntary Blood Donors in Central Hospital, Auchi

Chapter One

Objectives of the study

General Objective

To determine the prevalence of hepatitis c virus among voluntary blood donors in Central Hospital Auchi.

Specific Objectives

  1. To determine the prevalence of HCV among voluntary blood donors at Central Hospital Auchi – Nigeria.
  2. To determine the risk factors associated with HCV infection among voluntary blood donors at Central Hospital Auchi-Nigeria.
  3. To establish the existing knowledge on HCV infection among voluntary blood donors at Central Hospital Auchi- Nigeria.



Transfusion of blood is an essential life-saving intervention in patient management WHO, 2016). However, there are some risks involved which may lead to transmissions of hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B (HBV). Donated blood that is not properly screened or contaminated, (Adejare et al., 2015) can transmit blood borne infection like HCV. Studies show that hepatitis B and HCV are common infection and complications resulting from transfusion (Mandal et al., 2015). The average risk of seroconversion after transfusion is about 2% for HCV and 6-60% for HBV (WHO, 2012). Quality assurance systems (QAS) are important in blood screening in order to assure quality and safety supply of blood. The QAS minimize risk of transmitting infection to blood recipients. Confirmatory techniques such as Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Nucleic Acid Tests (NAT) assure quality and safety of donated blood. Maintaining regular voluntary blood donors and exclusion of high risk voluntary blood donors help in reduction of transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs), (MOH, 2013). In addition, very necessary transfusion and appropriate utilization of blood can greatly reduce the transmission of transfusion related infection, and minimize on wastage of blood (WHO, 2010).

World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, over two billion people are exposed to hepatitis B virus, 350 million develop chronic hepatitis B and over two million deaths occur annually. There are 177.5 million estimated infection of hepatitis C in the world; and half of infected people are in Africa (Anolfo et al., 2016). There were 399,000 reported HBV deaths in 2016 (WHO, 2016). It is important to carry out studies that can establish prevalence of HCV in the general populace and among voluntary blood donors.

Surveillance documents the spread and distribution of disease and helps detect epidemics. People with information make the right decision about their life behavior and are less likely to self-expose risk or agents of transmissions of infection like HCV infection (Zimmerman et al., 2015). Some studies argue that education does not improve on compliance with infection control precautions or reduce rates of infection (Ward et al., 2011). Limited information and HCV infection unawareness can lead to delay in diagnosis, a recipe to HCV complication into chronicity.

Studies have been done to measure knowledge and prevalence of Hepatitis C, among health personnel and exceptional groups such as intravenous drug users and expectant mothers (Muasya et al., 2008). However, few or no studies have been done among voluntary blood donors in Nigeria. Knowledge about hepatitis C could be established as adequate or inadequate from such studies like; among voluntary blood donors or general population. Prevalence, risk factors and prevalent genotypes associated with HCV can also be established through regular studies. Studies are important in policy making, control measures and planning purposes.



Research methodology

Study Area and settings

The study will be carried out at Central Hospital Auchi because of its cosmopolitan population, diverse culture and level education is good among residents. This center collects an estimated 1800 units of blood each month which translated to 5400 units during the three months’ study period. The Centre serves transfusing facilities within Auchi LGA by providing quality screened blood.

Study design

A cross-sectional study design will be adopted to determine the prevalence of HC infections among voluntary blood donors.

Study population

The study population will be voluntary blood donors from 60 blood drive sessions conducted from January 2022 to March 2022 within Auchi catchment area.

Criteria for selection

A protocol will be developed and used to accept or reject participant. All participating voluntary blood donors will be assessed by either qualified physician, Nurse and or laboratory staff. Only Voluntary blood donors who qualified and agreed to participate were allowed to sign an informed consent.


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