Proximate Analysis of Ogi Produce From Maize (Zea May) Fortified With Soybean (Glycine Max)
Objectives of the Study
The nutritional quality of soya-ogi has been applauded to meet the needs of children in many developing countries, the technology for soya-ogi production currently utilize maize, there limited research work carried out to nutritional effects soyabean on ogi produce from maize. Thus, this project work focuses on the following objectives
- To produce ogi from fermented maize flour
- To blend or incorporate soybean flour with fermented maize flour during preparation of ogi
- To examine the nutritional attributes effect of ogi produce from soy-maize flour blends
Production and Distribution of Maize (Zea may L)
Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops used in the human diet in large parts of the world and it is an important feed component for livestock. In terms of total world production, maize on average over the last five years out ranked paddy rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum).
Global production exceeds 600 metric tons (McDonald and Nicol, 2005), with about 60% produced in the developed countries, particularly by the United States of America, China produces 27% of the world’s maize and the rest is grown in countries of Africa, Latin America, and southern Asia with a large proportion being produced in the tropics and subtropics. World total maize consumption and production of 2016-17 are shown in graphically below. Total world maize production is 40,861 million bushels. As this graph showed that after U.S, China is largest maize production with 8,643 million bushels while production of maize from Brazil, Eu-27, Argentina, India is 3405, 1437 and 965 respectively.
Total world maize consumption is 40,429 million bushels, U.S is largest maize consumption with 12,360 while China is second largest maize consumption 8937 million bushels. By the early 20th century, maize had become one of China’s major crops. The maize area expanded to 10 million ha, approximately 12% of total cultivated area, between 1900 and 1930. The area sown to maize continued to increase rapidly during subsequent periods; in 22 provinces (not including northeastern China and Inner Mongolia) it increased by 20% between the periods 1937-1945 and 1946-1949 (Wei et al., 2014).
Next to rice, wheat, and millet, maize was the fourth most cultivated cereal crop in China in 1949, when the People’s Republic of China was established. By 1951, maize had exceeded millet in terms of sown area, and maize took its place as the third most cultivated cereal crop in China. Maize area continued to increase substantially during the 1950s, as yields increased. In recent years, however, trends in maize area and production have exhibited higher levels of variability.
Taxonomy of maize
Species: Zea mays
The genus Zea consists of four species of which Zea mays L. is economically important. The other Zea species, referred to as teosintes, are largely wild grasses native to Mexico and Central America. The number of chromosomes in Zea mays is 2n = 20. The tribe Andropogoneae comprises seven genera, namely old and new world groups. Old world comprises Coix (2n = 10/20), Chionachne (2n = 20), Sclerachne (2n = 20), Trilobachne (2n = 20), and Polytoca (2n = 20), and new world group has Zea and Tripsacum (Biology of maize, 2011).
Nutritive value of maize
Maize provides approximately 1400 Kcal/100 g (on a dry basis) of energy that is sufficient to maintain the equilibrium. This energy is also used to perform different types of physiological task. Maize or corn can be consumed as a source of energy in the form of breakfast cereals as cornflakes, chapattis, tortillas, etc. Maize also contains an appreciable amount of fat content that helps in the carrier of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. The presence of fat in maize or corn is responsible for much of the texture and flavour of food. Thus it helps in increasing the palatability (Longvah et al., 2017).
The fat content beneath the skin known as the subcutaneous fat also serves as an insulating material for the body and is effective in preventing heat loss. Moreover, fat content also acts as a body reservoir for energy conservation purpose(Higgins, 2004).
Another important component in maize after fat is dietary fibre and is defined as the portion of food derived from plant cell, which is resistant to hydrolysis or digestion by the elementary enzyme system in human beings. However, some of the bacteria in the large intestine can degrade some components of fibre releasing products that can be absorbed into the body and also used as a source of energy. Crude fibre is the residue remaining after the treatment with hot sulphuric acid, alkali and alcohol. The major component of crude fibre is a polysaccharide called cellulose and a part of dietary fibre. Insoluble fibres are indigestible and insoluble in water, while soluble fibres are indigestible but soluble in water. Total fibre is the sum of insoluble and soluble fibres. Dietary fibre is isolated and extracted from a synthetic fibre that has proven health benefits. Resistant starch also functions as dietary fibre (Higgins, 2004; Willis et al., 2009; Longvah et al., 2017).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The Maize (Zea may L) and soybean (Gycine max) used are purchased from a local market (Oja Ikoko) in Owo, Ondo state, Nigeria. The maize and soybean was processed in Food processing Laboratory of Food Science and Technology and was subjected to mineral composition the Chemistry Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo.
Production of Fermented Maize Flour
The maize was first sorted to remove foreign materials after which it was thoroughly washed separately in distilled water and soaked in a plastic container with cover. The water was decanted after three days of soaking and wet milled into slurry using a sterilized warring blender. This was followed by sieving the slurry using a muslin cloth. It was then dried for about 24 hours before it was grinded to powder.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results obtained for the proximate composition of maize (ogi) fortified with soybean flour at various proportion
Table 4.1: Proximate composition maize (ogi) fortified with soybean flour at various proportion
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Highest protein content was recorded in sample produce from a combination of maize and soybean. There are also improvements in other nutrient investigated when maize flour fortified with soyabean. The study revealed that incorporation of 10% soyabean in the composite ogi produce from maize significantly improved, the nutrition qualities of the products, therefore, the fortification of maize with soyabean prove to be very effective and can be used protein malnutrition by both adults and children.
Inclusion of highly nutritious soybean in the production of ogi powder would not only increase the use of the locally grain crops. This would invariably lead to reduction in importation of instant weaning food. Further study on the proximate properties should be carried out in order to increase the shelf life of ogi fortified with soyabean.
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