Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Proximate and Physicochemical Analysis of Fish Flour Obtained From Three Fish Species

Proximate and Physicochemical Analysis of Fish Flour Obtained From Three Fish Species

Proximate and Physicochemical Analysis of Fish Flour Obtained From Three Fish Species

Chapter One

Preamble of the Study

Food is a biological material which has aesthetic appeal, good organoleptic qualities, which when ingested, digested and absorbed by the body will supply the needed nutrients for growth, maintenance of health and support of other metabolic activities within the body system. There are two major sources of food as a biological material, these include food from plant and animal sources food for plant sources include cereal, roots, tuber, pulses etc. while those from animal sources include meat, milk, eggs, fish etc.


Literature Review

Fish are animals with fins that live in water i.e. they live in brooks, springs, rivers and the sea. They breathe by means of gills and will easily die if taken out of water. Fish vary in shapes, forms and sizes, but they all have an identical structure. Fish an aquatic animal used as human food after processing. (Usua 1999).

All true fish muscles is typical striated muscle and in most true fishes the ends of the typically shortly, striated cells are unserted into sheets of connective tissues, arranged in a complicated patter which on healing, breakdown and give rist to the characteristics flaky appearance of coagulated blocks (myotomes) of cells.

The two main types of muscles exist is red or dark, brown and white, the white muscle is disposed laterally along the body in discrete strips or blocks between the skin and back bone.

Different Techniques of Fish Processing and Preservation

Smoking: The fish is hung on rank in a kiln and exposed to smoke from burning wood, the tar and phenole from the smoke produce a desirable color flavor while methanol provides a preservative effect.

Salting: This reduces the moisture content and discourages the growth of microorganisms which otherwise would cause decay. The process of salting involves introducing salt into the layers of piled split fish.

Drying: Drying of fish carried out under ambient conditions and fish dehydration carried out artificially enhance the storage life of fish by decreasing its water contents dried fish may last for several years, with control of spoilage being due to control of microbial growth and enzyme activity by the low moisture content.



Materials and Methods


The materials used for this project work include matured stockfish, cat fish and Tilapia fish which were purchased Eko ende in Osun State. other materials include stainless steel knife, bowl, tray and water.

Equipment used include oven, desiccators, PH meter, kjedare apparatus, soxlet apparatus and muffle furnace.


Production of Fish Flour

The fish was washed with portable clean water then the head was cut off with use of sharp stainless knife and it was slice into two then it was placed in a tray and sun dryed. after drying it was cool in a desiccator then the bone was removed and it was milled into powdery form and it was sieve so as to get a smooth flour and it was package inside a plastic container.


 Results and Discussion

Results on Proximate Analysis

The result of proximate analysis of fish flour produced from catfish, tilapia fish and stockfish is as presented in table 4.0 below from the table the moisture content in catfish is 9.7%, followed by Tilapia fish 9.5% and stockfish 8.8% the propensity of microorganisms to grow in the food depends on their water content and since the water content in the fish is removed by drying, therefore the shelf life of the fish flour will be long compare to raw fish which has high moisture content. Then the protein level in stock is 69.9% and 68.0% in catfish and 65.7% in Tilapia fish, since the level of protein is high in the fish flour which help to keep the skin, hair and nails healthy and protein is required for building and repairing of body tissues including muscles while the fat content in Tilapia is 9.9%, 8.3% in cat fish and 3.6% in stockfish and fat is important in the body because it helps in forming structural materials of cells and tissues such as the cell membrane the carbohydrate present in stockfish is 7.0% Tilapia fish 5.3% and in catfish 4.7%, carbohydrate which assist in the complete breaking down of other nutrients in the body. They assist in the complete breaking down of other nutrients in the body. Also carbohydrate are that of storing food, acting as a framework in body, they play a major role in promoting health fitness.


  Conclusion and Recommendation


The fish flour making as a form of food fortification is prepared for human consumption in which the protein is more concentrated than in the original fish, this fish protein concentrate has high protein by this it meant that the amino acid which make up protein are present in just the right balance for human nutrition.

Also in diet fish provides a good source of high quality protein and contains many vitamins and minerals. Fish nutrients are excellent source of high quality proteins with sufficient amount of all the essential amino acid.


Considering the steps involved in fish flour production from fishes, especially during drying, great production needs to be taken to maintain delicate and rotalite nutrients such as vitamin C, A and minerals present in fishes, so that they will not get denatured or destroyed during heat processing.


  • Amerine M. A and Ough C. S. (1980) Method of Analysis New York
  • AOAC (1990), Official methods of Analysis 15th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemist Washington D.C
  • Bruton, Michael N. (1996) Alternative life history strategies of cat fishes.
  • Dr. Marian Nieves, Gaicia Casal (1993) Tilapia farmerming Doi:10,1051/air:1996040.
  • Helfman G. Collette BB, facey DH and Bowen BW (2009).
  • Jenny (2000): Fish Nutrient. Copyright (c) protein
  • Judith T. (June 2011): Article reviewed on protein concentration.
  • Kurlansky, Mark, Jenny (1997). Cod: A Biography of the fish that changed the world.