Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Proximate and Sensory Evaluation of Ipekere (Maize Cake) Produced From Maize and African Yam Bean

Proximate and Sensory Evaluation of Ipekere (Maize Cake) Produced From Maize and African Yam Bean

Proximate and Sensory Evaluation of Ipekere (Maize Cake) Produced From Maize and African Yam Bean

Chapter One

The Objective of the study

Therefore, the aims of this study are to evaluate the proximate properties and sensory evaluation of maize cake (ipekere) produced from maize (Zea mays) and African yam bean.



MAIZE (Zea May L.)

Maize is a domesticated grass that originated approximately 7000 years ago in what is now Mexico. It is also referred to as corn, and both words are used as synonyms in this review, depending on the source of data or references consulted. Maize was spread across the world shortly after the European discoveryoftheAmericas.Regardlessoforigin,corn has proven to be one of the most adaptable crops. Itsevolutionapparentlyoccurredmainlyunderdomestication and resulted in biotypes with adaptationrangingfromthetropicstothenorthtemperate zone, from sea level to 12,000 feet altitude, and growing periods (planting to maturity) extending from6weeks to13months (Brown and Darrah, 2005; Vollbrecht and Sigmon, 2005).

Currently,theUnited States, Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, India, France, Indonesia, South Africa, and Italy produce 79% of the world’s maize production (FAO, 2009). Between 2000 and 2011,thenumberofmillionsofmaizehectaresharvestedrangedfrom129.1to163.9.Duringthesame period the production of maize in metric tons per hectare increased from 3.7 to 5.1, and total maize production increased from 482.0 to 832.11 millionmetric tons. Worldwide, 60–70% of maize production is used domestically as livestock feed, and the remaining 30–40% is used for production of items for human consumption (FAO, 2006).

Cornisthemaincerealgrainasmeasuredbyproductionbutranksthirdasastaplefood,afterwheat and rice. The reasons for this fact are varied, but some of them are related to cultural or social preferences and also because in some countries, corn is cultivatedaslive-stockfeed.Morerecently,theuseof corn as a biofuel has generated great concern about rises in the market price of corn for consumption, theneedtoincrease cultivableareas,aswellaswater quality and other ecological damages. Some predictive models project that large-scale corn ethanol production could lead to decreases in food exports, higher prices and a greater global deforestation (Secchiet al., 2011; Wallingtonet al., 2012).

 Maize Anatomy

The maize kernel is composed of four primary structures from a processing perspective. They are endosperm, germ, pericarp, and tip cap, making up 83%, 11%, 5%, and 1% of the maize kernel, respectively. The endosperm is primarilystarch surrounded by a protein matrix. Two main types of starch include hard or vitreous, and soft or opaque.Vitreousendospermisnegativelyrelatedto starch degradability and in vivo starch digestibility in ruminants (FAO, 2002; FAO, 2006).

The germ or embryo of the maize kernel is high in fat (33.3%) in addition to enzymes and nutrients for new maize plant growth and development. The germ also contains vitamins from B complex and antioxidants such as vitamin E. Maize germ oil is particularly high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (54.7%), which are subject to oxidative and other forms of rancidity resulting in off or objectionable flavors from full-fat maize products. Pericarp is a high-fiber(8.8%crude)semipermeablebarriersurroundingtheendospermandgerm,coveringallbut the tip cap. The tip cap is the structure through which all moisture and nutrients pass through during development and kernel drydown. The black or hilar layer on the tip cap acts as a seal (Eckhoff, 2010). The term branisalsousedtorefertothefiber-richouterlayer (pericarp) that contains B vitamins and minerals and the tip cap.

Corn variations may be artificially defined according to kernel type as follows: dent, flint, waxy, flour, sweet, pop, Indian, and pod corn. Except for pod corn, these divisions are based on the quality, quantity, and pattern of endosperm composition, which defines the size of the kernel, and are not indicative of natural relationships. Endosperm compositionmaybechangedbyasinglegenedifference, as in the case of floury (fl) versus flint (FI), sugary (su)versusstarchy (Su),waxy (wx) versusnon-waxy (Wx),andothersinglerecessivegenemodifiersthat havebeenusedinbreedingspecial-purposetypes of corn (Brown and Darrah, 2005; Doebley, 2004).

 Cultivation of Maize

Maize improvement work started in the forest zones but yield trials were soon conducted in both forest and savanna locations (Van Eijnatten, 2005). The evaluation zones were:

  1. Wet rainforest, covering most of Eastern States of Nigeria and the South-Western part.
  2. Derived Savanna, fringing the forests and forming the transition to the southern Guinea Savanna.
  3. Southern Guinea Savanna.

Because of the differences in yield potential of the ecological zones, testing of new maize varieties across the country became an established practice in maize breeding. These trials were called cooperative maize yield trials (Chinwuba, 2002). With time, the name has gone through several changes, including zonal Trials, Uniform maize, variety trials and now, Nationally Coordinated Maize Variety Trials (NCMVT).

Yields in Ibadan (7o22’N) representing the Forest zone and Mokwa (9o19’N) in the Southern Guinea Savanna were much lower than in Savanna (11o11’N) of the Northern Guinea Savanna. A comparison by Fakorede et al., (2009b) of Forest and Savanna location since yield trials conducted for four years showed that the yield advantage of the savanna was due primarily to ear number. Whereas number of plants harvested was about the same in the two agro-ecologies, the savanna zone consistently produced more ears per unit land area. Therefore barrenness was much more pronounced in Forest zone than in Savanna ecologies. Maize plants in the savanna were taller with higher ear placement, suggesting greater vigor of growth. Number of days to silkingwas about the same in the two ecologies although the late Ops and the yellow hybrids tended to silk later in the Savanna than in the forest zone. However, percentage moisture content at harvest was consistently lower at savanna than at forest locations. This implies a shorter grain – filling duration and/or a faster dry-down rate in the savanna than in forest ecologies. Indeed, the “stay green” character secures frequently in the forest zone, whereas it is almost non-existent in the savanna zones.

The hybrid maize project has made an impact in Nigeria. The yield advantages of hybrids appear to be sufficiently large to attract the attention of farmers. Improved high yielding maize variety can express its full genetic potential only when offered optimum management resources. This starts with the right choice of site through timely and appropriate establishment, nutrition, disease and pest control to proper harvesting procedure and produce disposal and/or storage. Details of these operations with regards tomaize productiontechnology relevant to Nigeria are:





Yellow maize and African yam bean used in the research work was purchased from a local market in Owo, Ondo State. The samples were obtained in batches for two weeks in August, 2019. The samples were processed in food processing laboratory of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic Owo, Ondo State.


 Production of Maize Flour

The maize grain was sorted, washed and oven dried at 65% for 6 hours. The dried maize was milled into flour using attrition mill. The maize flour was stored in air tight containers,labeled and kept in a cool dry place for further analysis as shown in figure 1 below.




Table 3: Proximate composition of Ipekere samples produced from maize and African yam bean flour





Variety and nutrient adequacy are factors of importance in the formulation of food for the benefit of people.Ipekere is an indigenous snacks consumed by adverse and immense number of people. The nutritional content and acceptability of the snacks can be improved if African yam bean is incorporated with maize in the ratio 70:30. Ipekere produced from AYB and maize is highly nutritious, it has a better protein and crude fibre content. The addition of African yam bean to maize in the production of Ipekere proved to be more nutritious and better accepted. It should therefore be incorporated into complementing mixes.


The following points can be recommended based on this research

  • The local producers of Ipekere should fortify the maize with African yam bean to yield high percentage of good nutrient.
  • Enlightenment programme (food fortification programme) should be made to the general public to mesmerize the populace on the nutritional benefits of African yam bean. This will also enable the developing countries that suffer from food and nutrient inadequacies tofortify African yam bean with maize to improve their nutrient status.


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