Objective of the study
The objectives of the study are;
- To find out the perception of people of Abeokuta South Local Government on gender equality bill in Nigeria
- To find out the effect of gender discrimination in Nigeria
The following research hypotheses are formulated to guide the study;
H1: there is no perception of people of Abeokuta South Local Government on gender equality bill in Nigeria
H2: there is no effect of gender discrimination in Nigeria
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Factors inhibiting women participation in politics
Discriminatory Culture and Norms:
Agbalajobi 2010 postulates that the cultures of many societies are based by subjugating women to men, and undermining their self-esteem. Women are typically associated with domesticity according to Abiola in Lanre (2003), Gender inequality remain pervasive in many dimensions of life, the nature and extent of the discrimination very considerably across countries and regions In Nigeria, the female are discriminate, even in the families. Consistently, men were trained not to partake in most domestic chores such as cooking, sweeping, fetching water and firewood, which are exclusively left for women. In favor of this, Ihimodu (1995) agree that women were relegated to the domestic sphere that were not renovated or valued. In line with these, Ogwu (1992) observed the implementation of gender differences are created and sustained by society through its traditional customs, conventions, norms and regulations. Obikeze (2006) posits that family responsibilities and child bearing to women makes women not to feature in public matters as they are likely to be away on maternity leave and other house hold matters and that are likely to take them away from the scene of politics. Anya (2003) believes that the basis of societal norms regulate women to the background when he explains that the greatest dangers to the practice is the internationalization of these belief system which make women see politics as something out of their spheres. As Anya (2003) wrote that the society sees women who go to politics as rebels and prostitutes, this attitude differs women from participating in politics. Actually, the tradition or cultural beliefs in Nigeria as a typical patriarchal society see women as property of her husband who has moral right to decide the actions which the woman will take, whether she will come out to join the active politics is a matter which the man will decide since the tradition has ascribed the headship of the family to the man. In the concept of inequality and subordination of women to men, there is no relationship, and women are like slaves working to enrich their husbands and masters, who the tradition has ascribed the pillar of the family and the key to continuation and retention of the family name. Ogunabayo (2011) added that Marriage institutions are still in the hands of the males, many sons after the death of their fathers try to push away their matters from the property and a also a woman have no custody of the children from her marriage in the events of divorce, making the women in question an object of caricature and of unimportance to the society. Vividly, in the cultural and marriage institution choice of life partner, young girls are denied the right to choose their husbands, or even forced into early marriage, into the life of a man whether love is there or not. More so, in marriage institution, some practice polygamy while some cases resulted to progeny syndrome; families without a male child are deprived some rights and privilege. In some society, this enhances involvement in polygamous families and the concept of inequality and subordination of women to men. Furthermore, women are being restricted from access to sources of power both economically, politically, socially and otherwise. Conversely, the women in Igbo land are forbidden from being where men are discussing issues concerning landed property. Moreover, in Nigerian society, the role of men and women are socially constructed in such a way that the women occupy an inferior position in the scheme of things. There are many obstacles and prejudices that prevents women from participating in the social activities or even owing properties, the society regards women as things to be possessed, as objects of rights rather than regards them fit. Take for instance, women are not allowed to bail somebody out of the police cell or to stand as a surety for somebody. Decades ago in Igbo land, women are equally forbidden from going to the section of the market were they are selling meat since they are culturally forbidden to eat meat and egg which men thought will motivate women to steal. Therefore, cultural norms are unfavorable to the women folk. So, women need to embark on education as the only inspiration to redress their flight.
Another constraint that hampers women from equal access to politics or encounter restricting their quest to participate in active politics. Afolabi (2003) specifiable sates that most women in Nigeria are illiterate despite the facts that they constitute half of the country’s population. Regardless, of the vital key roles they perform in the society; mother, producer, home manager, community organizer, social-cultural and political activities. Anifowose (2004) postulates that most families prefer to send their male child to school, irrespective of the fact that female children are more important to attend school. In the words of Jonathan (2011) “Train a boy, you have trained a nation” in the same vein, Alita (2011) emphasis that parents prefers to send their son to school instead of their daughters whom they feel will after, get married and thus get incorporated into another family. Therefore, the girls’ education is not pertinent as they are expected to marry, bear children and stay at home to nurture their children and the young girls are to nurture their siblings and to be married off at tender age. To Makinnen (1989) it is not. Gaub (2004) analyses the report of the United Nations that women constitute 70% of the world’s illiterate. Gender gaps are spread in access to educational opportunities. Achieving literacy education is the most crucial step to enabling literate women to take control over their lives to participate as equals in society. Education gives women a sense of belonging in the society, as it will encourage them to make a positive impact in their chosen carrier. Though the discrimination that makes women less likely to have access to paid employment has a negative impact, economic disparity favors men to the disadvantage of women. Green (2006) noted that when a woman is professionally empowered, she will make use of her endowment in a way that her entire family will benefit from it. Surprisingly, the women constitute the majority of illiterate population; larger percentage of the girls remains uneducated and unexposed. Makinnen (1989) affirms that this marginally increases illiteracy in women and stiffen their competition with their male counterparts in politics. Invariably, lack of education makes women ineligible for either elective or appointment position. Professionally empowered, she will make use of her endowment in a positive way
Economic Factors: lack of economic incentives is one of the factors preventing women from participating to active politics in Nigeria. Historically, women experiences discrimination that put them at a disadvantage economically. Agbalajobi (2009) emphasis that lack of finance brings hindrance to effective female participation in Nigerian Politics. Similarly, large portion of the Nigerian female population is not as financially strong as their male counterparts. Political campaigns are expensive and require solid financial backing for success. Only a few affluent women have the financial economic power to enroll in political campaigns. Consequently, political financiers or sponsors of politicians prefer male candidate to female one, Anifowose (2004). Life for women is on the average not only hard and poorly compensated, it is dangerous due to sexual division of labour and job opportunities offered on sex basis has given men productive gender roles enabling them to possess more purchasing power over their female counterparts. Discrimination plays out in the preferential treatment within the job economy.
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried to examine public perception of Abeokuta South Local government residents on gender equality bill in Nigeria. Residents in Abeokuta South Local Government Area of Ogun State form the population of the study.
3.4 SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION
A study sample is simply a systematic selected part of a population that infers its result on the population. In essence, it is that part of a whole that represents the whole and its members share characteristics in like similitude (Udoyen, 2019). In this study, the researcher adopted the convenient sampling method to determine the sample size.
3.5 SAMPLE SIZE SELECTION TECHNIQUE AND PROCEDURE
According to Nwana (2005), sampling techniques are procedures adopted to systematically select the chosen sample in a specified away under controls. This research work adopted the convenience sampling technique in selecting the respondents from the total population.
In this study, the researcher adopted the convenient sampling method to determine the sample size. Out of all the entire population residents in Abeokuta South Local Government Area of Ogun State the researcher conveniently selected 80 participant out of the overall population as the sample size for this study. According to Torty(2021), a sample of convenience is the terminology used to describe a sample in which elements have been selected from the target population on the basis of their accessibility or convenience to the researcher.
3.6 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
The research instrument used in this study is the questionnaire. A survey containing series of questions were administered to the enrolled participants.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only seventy-seven (77) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 77 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain public perception of Abeokuta South Local government residents on gender equality bill in Nigeria. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of public perception of Abeokuta South Local government residents on gender equality bill in Nigeria
This study was on public perception of Abeokuta South Local government residents on gender equality bill in Nigeria. Two objectives were raised which included: To find out the perception of people of Abeokuta South Local Government on gender equality bill in Nigeria and to find out the effect of gender discrimination in Nigeria. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from residents in Abeokuta South Local Government Area of Ogun State. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).
The GEOB is no doubt desirable at a time like this when the rights of women are being infringed upon and no respite is coming their way. However, if this Bill or any other Bill bothering on gender equality will ever be passed, it must put into consideration the three critical factors highlighted in this work namely; the patriarchal nature of the Nigerian society and the Senate in particular, the cultural and religious dimensions and the content of the Bill itself. As argued in this paper, if the structure of the Nigerian society as well as the Senate remains unchanged, the possibility of passing the GEOB remains very slim. However, the promoters of the Bill may need to solicit for more supports from their male counterparts in the Senate. This may seem herculean at first, however when properly handled, including the involvement of professional lobbyists, the Bill may be heading to its realization. Furthermore, beyond the Senate, much advocacy needs to be done in re-orienting the larger society on the need for a gender-balanced society. Though, Civil Society Organisations are already engaged in this cause, concerted effort is needed if the Senate will ever pass this Bill into law.
The government is encouraged to explore affirmative actions, provide facilities and incentives that will encourage female students to further their education. This is in line with our findings which shows that the tertiary level of education provides higher returns than lower levels of education for females. Inequality across region seems to affect the economy greatly as a result shows that some region that is the south is better than the north, therefore, steps to develop the region should be of top priority for the government and the concerned stakeholders such as the multinational companies and private companies in terms of providing wage-paying jobs
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