Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Quality Evaluation of Chinchin Produced From Whole Wheat-soybean Flour Blends

Quality Evaluation of Chinchin Produced From Whole Wheat-soybean Flour Blends

Quality Evaluation of Chinchin Produced From Whole Wheat-soybean Flour Blends

Chapter One

Objective of the Study

            The objective of this project was to determine the physicochemical properties of whole wheat – soybean composite flour and to determine the nutritional and sensory properties of chinchin produced from the composite flour.



Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Wheat is the most important stable food crop for more than one third of the world population and contributes more calories and proteins to the world diet than any other cereal crops (Adams et al., 2002; Shewry, 2009). It is nutritious, easy to store and transport and can be processed into various types of food. Wheat is considered a good source of protein, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber (Shewry, 2007; Simmonds, 2009) although the environmental conditions can affect nutritional composition of wheat grains with its essential coating of bran, vitamins and minerals; it is an excellent health-building food. Wheat flour is used to prepare bread, produce biscuits, confectionary products, noodles and vital wheat gluten or seitan. Wheat is also used as animal feed, for ethanol production, brewing of wheat beer, wheat based raw material for cosmetics, wheat protein in meat substitutes and to make wheat straw composites. Wheat germ and wheat bran can be a good source of dietary fiber helping in the prevention and treatment of some digestive disorders (Simmonds, 2009).

Wheat Classification

Common wheat, sp.

Kingdom: Plantae – Plants

Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants

Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants

Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants

Class: Liliopsida – Monocotyledons

Subclass: Commelinidae

Order: Cyperales

Family: Poaceae – Grass family

Genus: Triticum – wheat

Species: Triticumaestivum – common wheat

Other Species: T. aestivum, T. aethiopicum, T. araraticum, T. boeoticum, T. carthlicum, T. compactum, T. dicoccoides, T. dicoccon, T. durum, T. ispahanicum, T. karamyschevii, T. macha, T. militinae, T. monococcum, T. polonicum, T. spelta, T. sphaerococcum, T. timopheevii, T. turanicum, T. turgidum, T. urartu, T. vavilovii, and T. zhukovskyi.    

 Importance of Wheat

Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum). The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis.

Wheat is grown on more land area than any other food crop (220.4 million hectares, 2014). World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize. Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st century. Global demand for wheat is increasing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods, whose consumption is increasing as a result of the worldwide industrialization process and the westernization of the diet.

Wheat is an important source of carbohydrates. Globally, it is the leading source of vegetal protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals but relatively low in protein quality for supplying essential amino acids.

Nutritional Contents

Globally, there is no doubt that the number of people who rely on wheat for a substantial part of their diet amounts to several billions. Therefore, the nutritional importance of wheat proteins should not be underestimated, particularly in less developed countries where bread, noodles and other products (e.g. bulgar, couscous) may provide a substantial proportion of the diet. Wheat provides nearly 55% of carbohydrate and 20% of the food calories. It contains carbohydrate 78.10%, protein 14.70%, fat 2.10%, minerals 2.10% and considerable proportions of vitamins (thiamine and vitamin-B) and minerals (zinc, iron). Wheat is also a good source of traces minerals like selenium and magnesium, nutrients essential to good health (Adams et al., 2002; Fraley, 2003; Shewry et al., 2006; Topping, 2007).

Wheat grain precisely known as caryopsis consists of the pericarp or fruit and the true seed. In the endosperm of the seed, about 72% of the protein is stored, which forms 8-15% of total protein per grain weight. Wheat grains are also rich in pantothenic acid, riboflavin and some minerals, sugars etc. The barn, which consists of pericarp testa and aleurone, is also a dietary source for fiber, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and niacin in small quantities.

Wheat germ is sodium and cholesterol free, and dense in nutrients. It is rich in vitamin E, magnesium, pantothenic acid, phosphorus, thiamin, niacin and zinc. It is also a source of coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) and PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid) (Shewry, 2007; Shewry, 2009). Wheat germ is also high in fiber, and contains approximately 1 gram of fiber per tablespoon. A diet high in fiber can be useful in regulating bowel function (i.e. reducing constipation), and may be recommended for patients at risk for colon disease, heart disease, and diabetes.

Types of Wheat Flours and its Uses

All-Purpose Flour

All-purpose flour is the finely ground endosperm of the wheat kernel separated from the bran and germ during the milling process. All-purpose flour is made from hard wheat or a combination of soft and hard wheat from which the home baker can make a complete range of satisfactory baked products such as yeast breads, cakes, cookies, pastries and noodles. Enriched All-Purpose Flour has iron and B-vitamins added in amounts equal to or exceeding that of whole-wheat flour. Bleached Enriched All-Purpose Flour is treated with chlorine to mature the flour, condition the gluten and improve the baking quality. The chlorine evaporates and does not destroy the nutrients but does reduce the risk of spoilage or contamination.

Unbleached Enriched All-Purpose Flour is bleached by oxygen in the air during an aging process and is off-white in color. Nutritionally, bleached and unbleached flour are the same.





Wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were purchased at the local market in Owo, Ondo State. Other materials used for the chinchin production such sugar, salt, eggs, flavour etc. were also purchased in Owo local market. The equipment used for the chinchin production were all gotten from the processing laboratory of the Department of Food Science and Technology, the analysis was carried in the Food Chemistry Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.


Production of soybean flour

The soybean flour was also prepared by the method reported by Houssou and Ayemor (2002). The soybean was first sorted to remove dirt and any impurity; it was then washed before cooked in order to soften the coat and to easily remove the coat, the soybean was then dried using cabinet drying machine at temperature of 65oC for 48 hrs after which it was grinded using attrition mill, it was sieved through 500 µm opening then packaged for cake production (Figure 1).




The result of the proximate and functional properties of flour blends produced from whole wheat flour (WWF) and soybean flour (SBF) and the sensory properties of chinchin produced these blends are as shown in the tables below.




Chinchin of acceptable quality similar to those made from whole-wheat flour were produced from whole-wheat flour and soybean flour blends at different ratios. Substitutions of whole-wheat flour (WWF) with soybean flour (SBF) up to 30% produced good results. From this study, it was observed that the flour produced had better nutritional quality than those produced from 100% WWF because the protein, fat, fibre and ash contents increased as the level of substitution with soybean flour increased. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in all the functional properties assessed. However, the values obtained indicate that the composite flour blends will find application in the baking industry. Chinchin produced from the flour blends were rated low in all the sensory attributes assessed in terms of mean sensory scores. However, chinchin produced from 70% WWF and 30% SBF was rated highest in all the attributes (colour, taste, flavour, texture, appearance and overall-acceptability), suggesting the potential of soybean flour in snack industry.


I recommend that further studies should be performed on whole-wheat flour and soybean flour blended chinchin to evaluate their respective protein quality and availability. Also, public enlightenment on the nutritional importance of soy-supplemented foods would help enhance the acceptability of the soy-supplemented chinchin.


  • Abioye, V.F., Yekini, A., Olodude, O.A., Atiba, V. and Oyewo, I.O. (2019). Quality evaluation of chinchin produced from composite flour of wheat and germinated finger millet. Proceedings of the 5th regional Food Science and Technology summit (ReFoSTS) held in Ilorin; Kwara State. pg 461-467.
  • Adams, M.L., Lombi, E., Zhao, F.J. and McGrath, S.P. (2002). Evidence of low selenium concentrations in UK bread-making wheat grain. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 82: 1160–1165.
  • Addo, A.A. and Oguntona, C.R.B. (2003).Nutritional Value of Soyabeans. Paper Presented at Training Workshop of Extension Workers in Soyabean Processing and Utilization, FMAWA/RD/UNAAB Soyabean Popularisation, April-June 2003.
  • Adeleke, O. and Odedeji, J.O. (2010). Functional properties of wheat and sweet potato flour blend. Pakistan J. Nutritionally. 96: 535-538.
  • Akpapunam, M.A., Badfu, G.I.O. and Etokudo, E.P. (1997). Production and quality characteristics of Nigerian Agidi supplemented with soy flour J. Food Sci. Technol, 34.143-145.
  • Akubor, P.I. (2004). Chemical Composition and Selected Functional Properties of Sweet Orange (Citrus Sinensis) Seed Flour. Plant Food Hum. Nutr. 54, 353–362.
  • Alvarez, M.L., Guelman, S., Halford, N.G., Lustig, S., Reggiardo, M.I., Ryabushkina, N., Shewry, P., Stein, J. and Vallejos, R.H. (2000). Silencing of HMW glutenins in transgenic wheat expressing extra HMW subunits.Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 100: 319–327.
  • AOAC. (2000). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 17th ed. USA: AOAC International, Md.
  • Basman, A., Koksel, H. and Wng, P.K. (2003). Utilization of Transglura nase use to increase the level of barley and soy flour incorporation in wheat flour breads. J. food sci. 68 2453-2453-2460
WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Our customer support team is here to answer your questions. Ask us anything!