Education Project Topics

Relationship Between the Use of Playground Facilities and Pre-school Children’s Motor Development in Kaduna Metropolis

Relationship Between the Use of Playground Facilities and Pre-school Children’s Motor Development in Kaduna Metropolis

Relationship Between the Use of Playground Facilities and Pre-school Children’s Motor Development in Kaduna Metropolis


Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to establish the importance of playground activities on improving learning of pre- school children in Kaduna Metropolis Area.

Research Objectives

The study was guided by the following research objectives:

  1. To establish the types of play employed in improving children’s development skills in Kaduna Metropolis Area.
  2. To assess the role of availability of play materials in improving children’s development skills in pre-school in Kaduna Metropolis Area.
  3. To examine the role of teachers in play employed in improving children’s development skills in Kaduna Metropolis Area.
  4. To determine the role of School policy on play employed in improving children’s development skills in Kaduna Metropolis Area.




This chapter explores a review of literature relating to the study. This study reviews social learning theory by Albert Bandura, impact of play materials on social emotional development, types of play materials, creative art play materials, language play materials, mathematical play materials, arts play materials, dance play materials, science play materials, outdoor play materials, indoor play materials, safety measures on play materials, availability of play materials in preschool, theoretical framework and conceptual framework.

Social learning theory by Albert Bandura

The theory posits that children learn through observation and imitation as they observe their model. According to Bandura (1969), social behaviour displayed is learned primarily by observing and imitating the other people’s actions. The social behaviour is also influenced by being rewarded or punished for actions as the case may be, following also a response, the reinforcement by observation will greatly influence occurrence of behaviour in the future, as Kiruki (2011:10) agrees with Bandura (1969).

Effects of play materials on social emotional development

According to the Nigeria Institute of Education (2008:13), play materials are used by both the teacher and the learner in order to enhance child’s motor development.   According to the National Centre for Pre-school (2000:135), social development refers to different behavioral patterns and characters which include kindness, cooperation, happiness, withdrawal and sadness. (Kamen 2000:135) also describes emotional development as different modes of mental reactions and adjustment, these include what is heard, seen, felt, tasted or touched. Emotional behaviours include joy, anger, fear and shame.

The study was used to find out the effectiveness of play materials in enhancing social emotional development.

Social emotional development

Effects of play materials on social emotional of preschool children help in acquiring life skills. According to Kamen (2005:57) play materials when used by preschool children in play enhances social development which includes social skills, behaviour patterns, self-control, discipline, independence awareness of self in relation to other positive relationship by understanding needs and rights of others. The children moral concept in making decision based on individual maturity is enhanced.





This chapter explores the research design, target population, sample, sampling techniques, research instruments, questionnaires, interviews schedule, observation, instrument validity, instrument reliability, data collection and procedure and data analysis techniques.

Research design

The researcher used descriptive research design. The research was conducted in its natural setting. The questionnaires were issued on respondents in their preschools. The researcher conducted the interviews and observations in the same environment where both teachers and children were working from. The researcher was able to observe children as they interacted with play materials. The researcher collected data in the respondents’ natural settings where the behaviour was taking place. The survey research design was used as a methodology because the sample was from several preschools. It was a cross sectional survey where research data was collected at the same time.




This chapter deals with data analysis, findings, presentation and interpretation of findings. The purpose of the study was to investigate the importance of play motor development of children among children in Kaduna Metropolis Area





This Chapter presents a summary of the study, conclusion, recommendations and suggestions for further research.


The purpose of this study was to establish influence of playground activities on the improving development skills among pre-school children in Kaduna Metropolis Area L.G.A, Kaduna state. The study was based on four objectives: to establish how types of play influence the development development skills among preschool children, to assess how the availability of play materials influence improving development skills among preschool children, to examine how the role of teachers influence the improving development skills among preschool children and to determine how school policy on play influence the improving development skills among preschool children. The study used descriptive survey design where both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Questionnaires, interview schedules, observation checklist and children’s test were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics was used to determine frequencies. Percentages and means.

Summary of the Findings

In reference to the first objective, the study examined aspects of types play that contributed towards the improving development skills. These included learning activities that prepare the children to be functional members of society and therefore the school environment in which the child operates must be that which will promote the improving requisite development skills. The various types of play like manipulative, creative, dramatic and physical play were essential components of development skills development since they clearly indicated the children’s blending both play and learning activities in school environment.

5.6. Recommendations  

  1. Thegovernment through the MOE needs to come up with clear policy guidelines

regarding play in pre-school centers and clearly define the playground facilities according to the developmental stages of children. The government should enhance provision of early childhood play materials to enable preschool children develop holistically.

  1. The supervision of ECCE centers’ need to be enhanced to ensure teachers allocateadequate time and play materials to enable children develop development skills for holistic improving children


  1. Teachers should be encouraged to take a major role in planning and organizing playground facilities.This will ensure that various play materials are provided to children according to appropriate age and interest play in preschools


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