Relevance of ICT in Teaching Integrated Science in Secondary Schools in Ethiope West LGA
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to assess the Relevance of ICT in teaching integrated science in secondary schools in ethiope west LGA. The following are the specific objectives of this study:
- To ascertain the level of ICT use on teaching and learning integrated science
- To examine the effectiveness of ICT on teaching and learning of integrated science.
- To identify the factors limiting the use of ICT in teaching and learning integrated science.
The Concept of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
The importance of information in human life cannot be over-emphasized. It is said that if one is not informed, one is deformed. Hence, it is a well-known fact that nothing can be done efficiently in an information vacuum. Wiener says that, “… to live effectively is to live with adequate information…”. Magnstle (1994) must be aware of this fact when he said that information is a tool for increasing relevance to the individual scientists. Wired, March 1994:
Information is an activity. Information is a life form. Information is a relationship. Information is a verb not a noun, it is something that happens in the field of interaction between minds or objects or other pieces of information. Information is an action which occupies time rather than a state of being which occupies physical space.
The word information derives from Latin “informare” which means “give form to”. The etymology thus connotes an imposition of structure upon some indeterminate mass. The way the word information is used can refer to both “facts” in themselves and the transmission of the facts. Thus, information contains a structure that has a meaning.
According to Shannon and Weaver (1959), information is a purely quantitative measure of communicative exchanges. To Gregory Bateson, information is a difference that makes a difference. Information is data that (1) has been verified to be accurate, (2) is specific and organized for a purpose, (3) is presented within a context that gives it meaning and relevance, and (4) that can lead to an increase in understanding and decrease in uncertainty. The value of information lies solely in its ability to affect a behaviour, or outcome. A piece of information is considered valueless if, after receiving it, things remain unchanged. Information, in its most restricted technical sense, is a sequence of symbols that can be recorded as signs, or transmitted as signals. Information is any kind of event that affects the state of a dynamic system. Conceptually, information is the message (utterance or expression) being conveyed. Information is any type of pattern that influences the formation or transformation of other patterns. Information is any detected difference. Information is a repertoire’s collection detected somewhere within the system. Information is an abstract entity which has no separate existence on its own, because no difference can exist save there are real states between which the difference holds, and which constitute its mode.
Information is the stimulus that has meaning in some context for its receiver. When information is entered into and stored in a computer, it is generally referred to as data. After processing (such as formatting and printing), output data can again be perceived as information. Krippendorf (1984:50) defines information as a change in an observer’s state of uncertainty. He compares information with energy. “Energy and information are measures of work. But whereas energy is a measure of the physical work required to transform matter of one form into matter of another, information is a measure of the (intellectual) work required to distinguish, to a degree better than chance, among a set of initially uncertain possibilities”.
March and Horton (1986) regard information both as operational necessity and as an integral part of the overall business planning. Nzetta and Eyitayo (1988), remark that information like money gives both economic and political power to the possessor of it, power to achieve things, to take advantage of opportunities and to control people. Steven (1986) remarks that information has consistently been a significant element in the development of human society and that it has over a long period of time shaped the way we think and act. The second concept in the title of this study is communication. The word communication derives from the Latin word “communis” meaning “to share”. Communication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender’s intent to communicate at the time of communication; hence communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. According to Eyre (1983), communication is therefore, a transfer of message from one party to another so that it can be acted upon. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. Hence, communication is the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing or behaviour. The term communication may be used to mean transfer, transmission or exchange of ideas, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes or emotion from one person or group of persons to another. It is the flow or exchange of information within people or group of people. It is a process by which meaning is assigned and conveyed in an attempt to create shared understanding. This process, which requires a vast repertoire of skills in interpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, gestures, and evaluating, enables collaboration and cooperation. It includes verbal, non-verbal and electronic means of human interaction. It is the essence of human interaction and learning. It is sharing information whether in writing or speech.
Communication can occur instantaneously in closed, intimate settings or over great periods of time in large public forums, like the Internet. However, all forms of communication require the same basic elements: a speaker, or sender of information, a message, and an audience or recipient. The sender and recipient must also share a common language or means of understanding each other for communication to be successful. The act of communication begins with internal processing about information or feelings one wants to share with someone else (called encoding). After encoding, the message is sent through either spoken or written word, which completes encoding. At the other end of communication is receiving and interpreting what was sent (called decoding). The recipient can and should confirm the receipt of message for the sender to close the communication loop.
This chapter dealt with the methodology that will be used by the researcher to carry out the research work which covers the following: Research Design, Sample and Sampling Technique, Research Instrument, Validation of The Research Instrument, Procedure for Data Collection and Data Analysis Techniques.
This is a descriptive study of the survey type. The method was used to allow the researcher to have a vivid description of the topic for the purpose of making generalization.
Sample and Sampling Technique
The target population for this study was integrated science teachers in integrated science. One hundred (100) teachers were randomly selected from public and private schools in Ethiope west LGA giving male and female equal opportunities to fill the designed questionnaire.
Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation
Research Question One
What is the effectiveness of ICT use on teaching and learning of integrated science?
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
The research was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of ICT on teaching and learning, case study on integrated science. The findings of this research revealed that integrated science teachers are effective in the use of ICT for teaching. This is against the report of Kirschner and Selinger (2003) that the vast majority of teachers do not know how to use the computers to promote educational efficiency, and they are not adequately trained to use modern information media. It also confirms the assertion that teachers have developed competence in the use of ICT, thus they can model good use of technology (Idowu, Adagunodo there is no significance difference between male and female integrated science teachers & Popoola, 2003). Thomas and Mart (2006) also reported that there is no considerable difference in computer literacy level of teachers based on their subject specialization. The results of this study also show that ICT use by secondary school teachers is academic qualification specific as confirmed through hypothesis one which state that there is no significance difference between the ICT use and teaching and learning of integrated science. The results are in line with the findings of Agbatogun (2010) that teachers’ response to acquiring knowledge, skills and competence in the use of ICT is on the rise with academic qualification. On the other hand, these results disagrees with the findings of Atkins and Vasu (2000) which states that attitude of teachers towards the acquisition of computer literacy skills and usage depreciate as they attain high academic qualifications.
The findings indicated some factors militating in the effective use of ICT for teaching integrated science. These barriers as attested to by the teachers included lack of qualified teachers, shortage of computers and other ICT tools in schools, epileptic poor electric power supply, lack of suitable educational software, among others. In summary, it can be deduced that the teachers who are the final instrument in Curriculum implementations have the desired competency in the utilization of ICT for Instructional Purposes. Thus, the proper inculcation of ICT in children’s education should not be neglected so as to bring about effective and productive education of secondary school students.
This study has discovered that integrated science teachers in integrated science are aware they need to be ICT literate to effectively teach their subject. These findings are in accordance with that of Yusuf (2011) which disclosed that teachers are competent in the use of Information and Communication Technology for teaching purposes. There integrated science teachers in integrated science have higher competence level in the use of ICT for Instructional purposes.
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made:
- The government (at all levels; Federal, State and Local) should provide adequate ICT facilities in schools. Through this, the problem of insufficient computers and facilities will be minimized.
- The government should provide frequent professional development programmes for teachers to update themselves of emerging technologies.
- The government and curriculum developers should make available, suitable educational software by seeking the assistance of software developers. However, this software should be affordable or be free for school use.
- The teachers’ salary should be restructured to encourage ICT competent teachers to apply for teaching job.
- The poor electric power supply of the nation should be rectified so as to encourage the use of computer in the school setting. That is, there should be regular supply of electricity in schools.
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