Relevance of Oramedia in the Enlightenment and Prevention of Measles Among Women in Bateren Community, Warri, Delta State
Objectives of the Study
This study will focus on achieving the following:
- To ascertain if oramedia are used for promoting awareness on the prevention of measles in Bateren community.
- To determine the roles played by oramedia in the promotion of awareness on the prevention of measles in Bateren community.
- To ascertain the challenges affecting the effective use of oramedia in promoting awareness on the prevention of measles in Bateren community.
REVIEWED OF RELATED LITERATURE
The uses and gratification communication theory provide explanationon how the audience of media channels chooses the kind of medium and contents that they will expose themselves to. This choice is usually based on certain benefits or rewards they feel their choice would give them. The theory was developed in 1970 by Elihu Katz and Paul Lazarsfeld.
Baran and Davies (2009) argues that the thrust of the theory is aimed at challenging and changing the dominant thought of communication research from ‘How the Media Affect People?’ to ‘What People do with the Media?’ The basic thrusts of the uses and gratification theory are; examining the rationale behind the preference of media audience to a medium and what benefits they (the audience) derive from such choice(s) or preference. The theory also focuses attention on why do people use the media, the way they do and what are people looking for or benefits they are expected to get from their use of the media? In other words, the theory seeks to answer the question: why are people becoming active audience or users of the media? And, are people satisfied with the active use of the media?
According to Baran and Davies, (2009) the goal of the theory, which became popular during the 1960s and 1970s when television viewing was expanding, was to gain more useful understanding of what people were doing with the media in their day-to-day living, i.e., examining; what people were doing when they use the media? Are the media audience passive consumers of media contents or are the media contents serving much important purposes to them? Are the audiences just passive or active in their use of the media? Do they get the expected gratification they seek from their choice of the media and media contents?
Popoola (2010) outlined the assumptions and prepositions of the uses and gratification theory to include; the mass media audiences are active, the audiences freely select the media and the content that they can best use to gratify their needs, the media are not only the source where the audience seek gratification, the audience members are or can be made aware of their interest and motives in certain cases and the mass media has no effect in determining the use and gratification of its audience.
The theory also postulates that the free choice of the media audiences to using the media and its content arise from the fact that the media is not the only source that provide certain gratification or benefits or need satisfaction to the audience. The media as a source of providing satisfaction or gratification to the audiences compete with other sources of need satisfactions away from the use of the media. In their free choice of the use of the media or media content, the uses and gratification theorists assumed that the media audiences in certain moment are conscious of their motives in the use of the media or its content, while at other time the media make them to be conscious of their interest and motives for the use of the media or its contents.
Kate, Guretitich and Haas (1973) cited in Emenyeonu (2014, p.64) described the uses and gratification theory as an approach to the study of the media behaviour of individuals who are audiences of the mass media. This suggests that the media audiences often bend their media exposure to their needs rather than have the media over power them. The media audiences in the uses and gratification theory use the media not only out of their free choice but out of their value judgments of the media and not from the cultural significance of the media to them.
McQuail (2010) observes that the needs which media audiences seek from their uses of the mass media and media contents are the needs for information, relaxation, companionship, diversion or escape. These needs that media audiences seek from their uses of the media can also be refer to as motives for the use of the media.
Therefore, the uses and gratification theory to a large extent provides basis in understanding the preference of rural dwellers in the use of Oramedia for carrying out enlightenment campaign. This points to the fact rural dwellers who are the target audience of the Oramedia channels are likely to choose the oramedia as their sources of getting information. The choice and preference most often may be what expected benefits they feel such action would grant or benefit them. The expected benefits the rural dwellers are likely to gain from choosing the Oramedia as their sources of information may be that oramedia channels have proven to be channels of communication that are considered credible as sources of information.
The theory also provides basis to understanding that Oramedia channels of communication serve as sources of need gratification for rural dwellers who develop interest in sourcing their information from the traditional media channels which compete with other sources of need satisfaction. Other reasons for the use of oramedia for carrying out enlightenment campaigns in rural areas may be because they are media channels that are indigenous which the people could easily identified. Therefore, Oramedia channels meet the need gratification of the rural dwellers.
Development Media Theory
The thrust of the development media theory stipulates that concern for the society, the media channels of communication are deployed in communicating development related issues that affect the society. Asemah (2011) observes that the development media theory holds the assumptions that in communicating development related issues, the communication media become useful in spreading informationon issues that affect members of the society. The theory according to Asemah was propounded by McQuail in 1987.
McQuail (2010) argues that the development media theory speculates that in communicating information on issues relating development, media channels should be in the forefront or vanguard, which will determine the pace of development in the society. In other words, the pace of development to a large extent is determined basically by on how the communication media channels are deployed in communicating information that can advance the development of the society and quite significantly, it is also determined by the extent to which the media channels are used in communicating development related issues.
McQuail (2010) cited in Wogu (2008) avers that the theory has the following principal tenets:
- Communication media channel should be used in accomplishing development tasks in line with nationally established policy.
- Freedom of the communication media channels should be open to restriction according to:
(i) Economic priorities and (ii) Development needs of society.
- Media channels should give priority in disseminating news and information to on development is being achieved in countries which are close geographically.
- In the interest of development, the society has right to intervene or restrict media operations, and devices of censorship, subsidy and direct control can be justified.
- Communication experts and professionals have responsibilities and freedoms in their information gathering and dissemination tasks.
The theory was adopted as the thematic framework for this study to explain how oramedia channels of communication areuseful in spreading and communicating information that are capable offosteringhealth development in rural areas. Since the spread of killer diseases are common in rural areas and impede the social development of the areas, the use of oramedia channels of communication becomenecessary in spreading information that will assist people in rural areas to be better inform on how to prevent the spread of epidemics that threatens the well-being of children.
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried to examine relevance of oramedia in the enlightenment and prevention of measles among women. Selected women in Bateren Community, Warri, Delta state form the population of the study.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only seventy-seven (77) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 77 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain relevance of oramedia in the enlightenment and prevention of measles among women in Bateren Community, Warri, Delta State. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of relevance of oramedia in the enlightenment and prevention of measles among women
This study was on relevance of oramedia in the enlightenment and prevention of measles among women in Bateren Community, Warri, Delta State. Three objectives were raised which included: To ascertain if oramedia are used for promoting awareness on the prevention of measles in Bateren community, to determine the roles played by oramedia in the promotion of awareness on the prevention of measles in Bateren community and to ascertain the challenges affecting the effective use of oramedia in promoting awareness on the prevention of measles in Bateren community. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from selected women in Bateren Community, Warri, Delta State. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).
In conclusion, Oramedia has proven to be highly relevant in the enlightenment and prevention of measles among women. Measles is a highly contagious disease that can have severe health consequences, particularly for vulnerable populations such as women and children. Oramedia, with its vast reach and influence, has the power to disseminate critical information, raise awareness, and promote preventive measures effectively.
Through various media channels such as television, radio, social media, and community outreach programs, Oramedia has played a significant role in educating women about the importance of measles vaccination, its potential risks, and the benefits of timely immunization. By leveraging their extensive network and engaging influential personalities, Oramedia has the ability to reach a broad audience and convey accurate and reliable information about measles prevention.
Furthermore, Oramedia’s role in the enlightenment and prevention of measles among women goes beyond disseminating information. It has the capacity to shape public opinion and influence societal norms and behaviors. Through the power of storytelling, documentaries, talk shows, and public service announcements, Oramedia can effectively convey the personal stories of those affected by measles and highlight the importance of preventive measures. This emotional connection created through Oramedia can inspire women to take action, protect themselves, and safeguard their communities against measles outbreaks.
Moreover, Oramedia can facilitate partnerships with healthcare organizations, government agencies, and non-profit organizations to support immunization campaigns, organize vaccination drives, and provide access to measles vaccines for women in underserved areas. By dedicating airtime, resources, and media coverage to these initiatives, Oramedia can amplify their impact and contribute to the eradication of measles among women.
In conclusion, the relevance of Oramedia in the enlightenment and prevention of measles among women cannot be overstated. Its ability to reach a wide audience, shape public opinion, and mobilize communities makes it an invaluable tool in the fight against measles. By leveraging its influence, Oramedia has the potential to save countless lives, protect vulnerable populations, and contribute to the global effort to eliminate this preventable disease.
Based on the relevance of Oramedia in the enlightenment and prevention of measles among women, the following recommendations can be made:
Strengthen Collaboration: Oramedia should forge partnerships with healthcare organizations, government agencies, and non-profit organizations working on measles prevention. Collaborative efforts can maximize resources, expand reach, and ensure a coordinated approach to raising awareness and promoting vaccination among women.
Tailor Messaging: Oramedia should develop targeted messaging specifically designed to resonate with women. By addressing cultural, social, and economic factors that may influence their decision-making, Oramedia can effectively communicate the importance of measles vaccination and overcome potential barriers to access and acceptance.
Promote Vaccine Confidence: Oramedia should prioritize efforts to build vaccine confidence among women. This can be achieved by featuring credible medical experts, sharing success stories of women who have been vaccinated, and debunking myths and misinformation surrounding measles vaccination. Emphasizing the safety, effectiveness, and long-term benefits of vaccines can help alleviate concerns and increase vaccine uptake.
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