Public Administration Project Topics

Review of Processes and Challenges of Flood Disaster in Loko, Nasarawa Local Government

Review of Processes and Challenges of Flood Disaster in Loko, Nasarawa Local Government

Review of Processes and Challenges of Flood Disaster in Loko, Nasarawa Local Government



This research is aimed at assessing the processes and challenges of flood disaster in Loko, Nasarawa Local Government. To achieve this, the following objectives are set for the research:

  1. To determine the factors that are responsible for flooding in Loko, Nasarawa Local Government Area.
  2. To find out the flood prone areas in Loko, Nasarawa Local Government Area.
  3. To present a flood risk map of Loko, Nasarawa Local Government Area.
  4. To assess the major impacts of flooding in Loko, Nasarawa Local Government Area.
  5. To study with a view to establishing reliable control and management measures of flood hazards in Loko, Nasarawa Local Government Area.




Flooding remains the most frequently reported costliest disaster worldwide, accounting for over 40% of natural worldwide disaster (tapsell and tunstall 2007). It is in fact the most common of all environmental hazards and it regularly claims over 20,000 lives per year and affects around 75 million people worldwide (smith 2006). Floods cause about one third of all damages from natural disaster (Akin 2009).

Flood is a body of water which rises to overflow land, which is normally submergered (National Environmental Survey/Action Team, NEST 1991). They are environmental hazards that occur regularly every year in different parts of the country especially during the rainy season. Flood water overflow expanse of land, submerging the land. Flood occurrence is usually due to the increase in the volume of water within the water body such as rivers and lakes. This causes water to exceed the drainage channel capacity and overflow its bounds.

Flooding occurs also when excess runoff is created owing to the inability of the soil to infiltrate water or when the soil has reached its field capacity or saturation. The result is excess runoff which submerges the landscape. This form of flooding is particularly the case in most urban centers of the world and Nigeria in particular, where urbanization has disturbed or altered the natural process of infiltration.

In many urban centers in the country, the dry season brings joy and relief even when the taps are dry, while the rainy season spells agonizing discomfort and the fight to keep life and property from flood devastation. In urban centers in the country, especially in the flood prone coastal areas of the country, floods has posed serious threat to life and property and rendered thousands of people homeless. (Report from National Technical Committee on Water on 5th august, 2008).

The general effect of flooding is very intense both in magnitude and impact. Its occurrence has constantly reduced land use and property value while the cost of living is in persistent rise. The impact of floods in our environment can be viewed from two different perspectives. Its impact on the natural environment on one hand and its impact on the built or artificial environment on the other hand. However, flood impact on the built environment (i.e. the urban Area) is far more devastating in nature due to human activities and increased population.

Flood, according to Resonzweig (2009) can be defined as an unusual accumulation of water above the ground, which is caused by high tides , heavy rainfall, or rapid run off from paved surfaces. Some rivers are known to have natural flood plains. The most serious floods occur along coastal areas. In these areas, heavy rainfall and poor soil combine to cause flooding.





This study employed descriptive method of research design. There are many approaches to defining floods. However this work emphasizes floods as related to Rainfall Intensity and Human activities. In order to analyze the problem of flooding in Loko, Nasarawa Local Government Area, data would be collected from primary field sources and secondary sources. This will enhance proper analysis of flood problem in the study area.


The data for this research was collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data was sourced through the use of questionnaires, field observation and interviews made during the research on the study area. Secondary data was sourced from books, journals, magazines, and annual rainfall data collected from the meteorological station in National Root Crop Research Institute (NRCRI), Loko.


The rainfall data consist of data collected for eleven years (2000-2010), covering the daily, monthly and annual rainfall. Data was also collected from published and unpublished books and journals on flood, library research, and articles including oral interviews from Ministry of Environment and Ministry of urban Renewal, Lafiya Nasarawa State.




As stated in Chapter 3, Rainfall data was collected from a secondary source. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and variance. Also, data was collected using questionnaire from primary sources. This data was analyzed and presented which forms the basis of this study.


To assess the problem of flooding Loko, Nasarawa Local Government Area Centre, Ninety questionnaires were presented randomly to cover three villages that make up the study area i.e. Loko, Nasarawa LG.A, Namely Aguba, Dora and Ayele.




Through the use of primary source questionnaires, interviews and secondary sources (rainfall data from national root crop research institute meteorology station Lafiya) as well as satellite images. The result shows that Ayele L.G.A has the lowest land use intensity with more agricultural land use. This puts it as the least flood prone area within the study area (Loko, Nasarawa Local Government Area).

Almost all the areas of Loko, Nasarawa Local Government Area are flood prone. According to the response of the occupants which shows that out of the 80 people that responded 90% (72 people) gave the information that in one way or the other they had experienced flood in the past eleven years in this area. In the year between 2000-2010, 2008 had the highest flood occurrences as well as 2002 and 2010 with 13.75% and 12.5% respectively. In comparism, the rainfall data (secondary source) also shows that these years that has been measured were also seen to have the highest annual rainfall. This shows the efficiency of the study.

The population of the study area suffer from a lot of loses especially, destruction of property (53.75%). The entire situation is further worsened by government reluctant attitude to issue relating to flooding.

There is great need for Government to show more active participation to curb the issue of flooding. This can only be achieved when government start focusing more on land use planning, development control, zoning and other legislation and policies that can properly prevent flood occurrence other than just involving in providing relieve materials for flood victims as experienced in recent times.


Loko, Nasarawa Local Government Area remains the commercial and industrial nerve Area of Nasarawa state. The Area Loko, Nasarawa Local Government Area is consistently experiencing fast growth and expansion as well development of new areas both in the core of the city and its periphery especially in Ayele Village.

The increase in built up areas of the city, implies increase in the surface cores of urban landscape, leading to reduction in the infiltration capacity of the soil, thereby generating higher magnitude of runoff as compared with the pre-urbanization period. Increasing population has further worsened the scenario in Aba, considering the fact that higher number of this population is traders, producing waste which will fill up the drainage ways.

Apart from population intensity and urbanization, other causes of floods in Loko includes; intense rainfall, building in flood prone areas, poor planning and maintenance of available drainage facilities, including government reluctance to implement the world bank`s proposals for flood control in the country and Nasarawa state in particular.

In this research, three flood prone areas where studied namely; Aguba, Dora, Ayele. However, rainfall remains the most suspected cause of flooding due to the sub-equatorial climatic location of Nasarawa state and Loko in particular. Flooding has been shown to have various effects on the human activities on one hand and the environment on the other hand. The effect of flooding is no longer in doubt as it has often put socio-economic activities and progress of places in the nation and Nasarawa state to bottleneck, especially in recent times making human survival almost difficult if not impossible.

Inspite of flood control measures being implemented, both advanced and indigenous; there is yet no reliable solution to flooding. Huge sum of finance is spent by the federal, state and local government to reduce flood damages but despite these numerous efforts, the flood damages continue to increase. However, increased public awareness of the potential hazard of flood plain would help properly inform developers.

Government should also Endeavour to put more efforts especially in the creation of more drainage system as well as other ways of controlling flooding. Stringent land use policies and development control tools must be implemented to control development on flood plain. These procedures should significantly ameliorate flood occurrence and maybe flooding could be perceived as a natural phenomena and not a natural disaster.


Data presented and analysis reveal that impacts of flood on both human and natural environment is enormous. The occurrence of flood poses serious threat to socio- economic development of Loko. It also frustrates the realization of millennium development goals particularly in Loko and Nasarawa State in general.

Hence, some measures that may be employed in abating flooding menace in Loko, the study area include;

Introducing thorough and skilful construction of both underground and open surface water channels to empty flood water into the receiving Loko river. This step will be needed in reducing the amount of run-off generated given the large tarred surfaces.

There is need for reinforcement of the practical application of flood risk map, the town planner should endeavor to constantly use these maps as guide to help them in site inspection and plan approval for construction of new buildings. These flood risk maps will help to determine areas which should be avoided in location of building for specific land use purposes that the flood risk areas can conveniently serve without many losses, for example, flood prone areas can be used for development of agriculture as well as recreational purposes. These areas are more commonly used in rice cultivation.

Throughout the centuries, man has created flood problems by cutting down trees and digging up the vegetation cover of the soil, thus increasing soil erosion and flooding. Cultivation decreases the water retention power of the soil and increases runoff. Vast land areas along rivers or streams or oceans have high water tables and thus make soil saturation very fast.

Hence, if deforestation could be controlled using stringent policies and regulations, then the level of flooding especially in Loko, Nasarawa Local Government Area and other cities/urban Areas would be ameliorated.

Land use planning and development control are inevitable tools for controlling urban development. In a swiftly urbanizing area like Loko, Nasarawa Local Government Area, proper land use policies, regulations, building and development bye-laws are very necessary to check the excesses of  developers and to monitor the nature of urban development.

Flood forecasting has to be well developed with standard modern technique of predicting the occurrence of flood. This will also be supplemented by the construction of flood frequency curves to determine the occurrence frequency of floods in certain areas. Warning of flood plain occupant before flood occurrence will help reduce the flood damages and loses as emergency action to guide against the destructive effect of flood may be highly efficient.

Government agencies, authorities, planners, environmentalists, practitioners of the built environment international organization and individuals must work in synergy to evolve a comprehensive approach that would emphasize more on the means of reducing flood damages over a long time. This process would rely on both indigenous and advanced techniques to abating flood problems in the country and Loko, Nasarawa Local Government Area in particular.


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  • Flooding (2019) Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Students andHome Edition, Chicago.
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