ROLE OF GIS IN SEARCH AND RESCUE OPERATIONS
1.3 Objective of study
In this study it is aimed to develop a new systematic integrated methodology which could reduce the time it takes to find survivors of plane crashes, and thus save lives. The proposed methodology with the desired characteristics integrates Search Theory, for constructing reliable probability distribution maps with GIS; for acquiring, integrating and analyzing data coming from different heterogeneous sources and Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methods for constructing probability maps.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The adopted methodology, which integrates GIS, MCDA and Search Theory, for SAR planning leads to some considerable results. The conclusions derived from the study are as follows:
- When MCDA decision rules are tested, it is found that AHP provides much better results than SAW and OWA. This confirms that the pair wise comparison is more reliable for these conditions.
- Of the used three different MCDA decision rules, SAW decision rule provides the worst search effort results. The average search effort of SAW is considerably higher than both OWA and AHP. Therefore, OWA and AHP decision rules should be preferred by the search expert in ASAR cases.
- While dividing area into sub sectors; reclassification method which is firstly adopted for SAR operations is used. This method provides search expert reliable borders of the sub sectors in the probability mapping. This method also decreases the subjectivity of search expert while dividing area into sub search areas.
- According to the results obtained from the reclassification of probability distribution maps, the reasonable class numbers are determined as 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 plot intervals for AHP decision rule. 3, 4 plot intervals are not reasonable for this situation.
- OWA decision rule has a similar character to AHP decision rule. The reasonable class numbers are determined as 5, 6, 7 and 8 plot intervals like AHP. However, besides 3, 4 plot intervals 9 plot interval is not reasonable for OWA decision rule.
- On the other hand, for SAW decision rule 4 and 6 plot intervals are reasonable. Hence 3,5,7,8 and 9 plot intervals provide higher search effort, they can not be considered as a reasonable solution.
- In the final stage, a functional comparison analysis of search patterns within the framework of search theory in terms of time domain, it is found that expanding square and sector search patterns provide shortest time to sweep the whole area.
- The main difference among these search patterns is commencing search points. Expanding square and sector search patterns started searching the area from the LKP point. Therefore, if LKP of the plane is known, it is a better solution to use Expanding square and sector search patterns.
- In this case, target is found around LKP, therefore giving the highest score to the LKP while weighting was reasonable.
- As a result with this methodology, the whole search area can be swept by the search aircraft in the limit of weather condition. Finding the location of missing aircraft in a short time is an achievement of developed methodology.
There are many modules and tasks that METUSAR tool could be expanded.
Following recommendations can be useful for similar and further studies.
- In this study generic search patterns explained in NSAR (1998) were used. Therefore search expert was limited to find the best fitting search pattern to the area. For further studies, a search pattern which is suitable for the area automatically.
- Also, topographic obstacles were not encountered in determining the probability maps. It would be beneficial to assess topographic features of the area apart from generation of visibility maps.
- Aspects variations (Appendix C) should be taken into account while calculating search effectiveness. Because, the speed of the plane could be adjusted and this can affects the search effectiveness. In smaller areas aspects and special characteristics of the terrain should be considered. Also lots of parameters in smaller areas could be included in the study like size of object, composition of the surface, composition of the object (color, reflective ability) and vegetation (so many tree types, and not growing in uniform pattern).
- This tool only covers a small part of a search and rescue operation processes. Also, optimal ways of reaching the missing object is a new study subject.
- The features listed in this part are just suggestions of directions the METUSAR tool can be taken in the future works. Any of these extensions would increase the functionality and usability of this tool in real life cases.
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Role of gis in search and rescue operations chapters 1 to 5 with abstract, appendix and references can be downloaded via this page in PDF and MS-Word Document. This research project paper can be use for your final year project guide, assignment, thesis sample, proposal sample, seminar work and research report.