Sensory and Chemical Composition of Maize Pudding (Elekute-Ogede) Produced From Maize and Legume Inclusion (Bambara Groundnut, African Yam Bean and Pigeon Pea)
Objective of the Study
The project work review examines the effect of legume inclusion (bambara groundnut, African yam bean, and pigeon pea) on the production and quality attributes of maize pudding (elekute-ogede).
Maize (Zea may L.)
Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important cereal in the world after rice and wheat and ranks fourth after millet, sorghum and rice in Nigeria (FAO, 2009). Maize or corn is the most important cereal crop in sub Saharan Africa (Akingbala et al., 2007). It is mostly used and traded as a leading feed crop but is also an important food staple. In addition to food and feed, maize has a wide range of industrial applications ranging from food processing to manufacturing of ethanol (FAO, 2006).
Global statistics for cereal consumption indicate that the average total consumption in the African diet is 291.7g/person/day, including an average maize consumption of 106.2g/person/day (FAO, 2009). Maize is known and called by different vernacular names in Nigeria depending on locality like agbado, igbado or yangan (Yoruba); masara or dawarmasara (Hausa); ogbado or oka (Ibo); apaapa (Ibira); oka (Bini and Isha); ibokpot or ibokpot union (Efik) and igumapa (Yala) (FAO, 2002).
Origin of Maize
Maize is one of the oldest human-domesticated plants. Its origin is believed to date back to at least 7000 years ago when it was grown in the form of a wild grass called teosinte in Central Mexico. Recognizing its early potential as a major food crop, over time the Mesoamerican natives managed to improve the crop, by systematically selecting certain varieties for their desired traits. This process led to the gradual transformation of teosinte to its present day form known as maize, a name which is a likely derivative of “mahis”, meaning “source of life” for Tanio people, the natives known to have mastered its cultivation. Maize is also known as corn, which is the name that has come into common usage primarily because it is used in the United States, the world’s largest producer, consumer and exporter of maize.
Maize is an annual plant with high productivity which also enjoys exceptional geographic adaptability, an important property which has helped its cultivation to spread throughout the world. Its gradual expansion in the Americas by the Natives was rapidly propagated in the 16th century following the return of Columbus to Europe. Colonial conquests and trade played a central role in the spread of maize cultivation well beyond the European continent, to Africa and Far East Asia (FAO, 2006). There exist several hybrids of maize, each with their own specific properties and kernel characteristics; the most common ones include: dent (or field maize, used for livestock feeding and can be yellow or white), flint (or Indian maize, grown in Central and South America), and sweet (or green maize).
Depending on their colour and taste, maize grown around the world is generally categorized into two broad groups: yellow and white. Yellow maize constitutes the bulk of total world maize production and international trade (FAO, 2006). It is grown in most northern hemisphere countries where it is traditionally used for animal feed. White maize, which requires more favourable climatic conditions for growing, is produced in onlya handful of countries, the United States, Mexico and in southern Africa. White maize is generally considered a food crop. Market prices are usually higher for white maize compared to the yellow type but the premium can vary depending on local supply and demand conditions.
Chemical Composition of Maize
Generally, whole maize contains 362 Kcal/100g; 8.1% crude protein; 72% starch, 5% fat, 1.3% ash, 1.2% fiber; 60 ppm calcium, 35 ppm iron; 1.8 ppm Zinc; 3.9 ppm Thiamine; 2.0 ppm Riboflavin; 36ppm Niacin; 3.0ppm pyridoxine; 0.25 ppm folates; 241 mg/100g phosphrous; 0.16 ppm selenium (Bressani, 2002).
Is a major chemical component of the maize kernel, it provides up to 72 to 73% of the kernel weight. Other carbohydrates are simple sugars present as glucose, sucrose andfructose in amounts that vary from 1 to 3% of the kernel. The starch in maize is made up of two glucose polymers: amylose (an essentially linear molecule), and amylopectin (a branched form). The composition of maize starch is genetically controlled. In common maize, with either the dent or flint type of endosperm, amylose makes up 25 to 30% of the starch and amylopectin makes up 70 to 75%. Waxy maize contains a starch that is 100 % amylopectin. An endosperm mutant called amylose-extender (ae) induces an increase in the amylose proportion of the starch to 50% and higher. Other genes, alone or in combination, may also modify the amylose-to-amylopectin ratio in maize starch (Zarkadas et al., 2000; Boyer and Shannon, 2007).
After starch, protein is the next largest chemical component of the kernel. Protein content varies in common varieties from about 8 to 11% of the kernel weight, with most of it found in the endosperm. The protein in maize kernels is made up of at least five different fractions: albumin (7%), globulins (5%) and non-protein nitrogen (6%) amounting to about 18% of total nitrogen as well as the prolamine fraction (52%) and glutelin fraction (25%) of the total protein in the kernel. Usually a small amount, about 5%, is residual nitrogen (Afoakwa et al., 2002). The nutritional quality of maize as a food is determined by the amino acid make-up of its protein. In common maize, deficiencies in lysine and tryptophan are evident as confirmed with Quality Protein Maize (QPM) (Punita, 2006). An additional important feature of maize composition is the high leucine content in common maize and the lower value of this amino acid in QPM (Zarkadas et al., 2000; Mertz et al., 2005).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Maize (Zea mays L) and Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean) used in the research work was purchased from a local market in Owo, Ondo State. Other materials such as pepper, ripe plantain, salt, onions, palm oil etc were also purchased in the same market in Owo. The samples were processed in food processing laboratory and the chemical composition (proximate analysis) was carried out in the chemistry laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic Owo, Ondo State.
Production of maize flour
Whole maize was dehusked and shelled from the cob. The grains were sorted out from plant debris, stones and other foreign materials, and were then washed in water to remove other tiny dirt particles that were present on the grains. The maize was divided into three (3), each undergoing different methods of preparation. The first maize was soaked for 48 hours (fermentation) while the second was soaked for 72 hours (3 days), lastly the third maize was washed, drained and covered till germination occurred. The grains that were soaked were drained and dried at 60oC in a hot air oven. The dried maize grains were then milled into flour using attrition mill, the germinated grain was dried at 60oC in hot air oven after which it was milled using attrition mill. The three samples of maize flour were kept for further analysis.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 4.1: Proximate composition of elekute ogede produced from fermented maize legume inclusion
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Elekute is a maize based pudding consumed mostly in the south-western part of Nigeria. It is produced locally by milling roasted maize into a fine powder and the addition of slurry over riped plantain, seasoned with spices. Elekute ogede is consumed by both but just as with other mainly maize based food products, consumption of Elekute is associated with protein deficiency which can cause kwarshiorko in children. As a result of the protein deficient nutritional status (PEM), this work is aimed to examine the sensory and chemical composition of maize pudding produced from maize-bambamra groundnut as a means of improving the protein contents of the food products. Therefore, conclusively, the fortification of Elekute ogede with a protein-rich foods materials like Bambara groundnut (vigna subterranean) African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) can be a way out to the protein deficient nutritional status of Elekute ogede. Also the fermentation of the raw materials could be an improved means to improve the nutritional contents of the products.
This research work is therefore recommended for other researchers to investigate and provide more results on this present study and also that the fortification of maize- pudding (Elekute ogede) with leguminous foods will help to improve and increase the nutritional contents of the food products.
- Abdulrahaman, A.A. and Kolawole, O. M. (2006). Traditional preparations and uses of maize in Nigeria. Ethno botanical Leaflets 10: 219-227.
- Abegunde, T.A., Bolaji, O.T. and Adeyemo, T.B. (2014). Quality evaluation of maize chips (Kokoro) fortified with cowpea flour. Niger. Food J. 32, 97–104.
- Abioye, V., Olanipekun, B. and Omotosho, O. (2015). Effect of varieties on the proximate, nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of nine variants of African yam bean seeds (Sphenostylis stenocarpa). Donnish J. Food Sci. Technol. 1, 17–21.
- Adamu, A.S. and Oyetunde, J.G. (2013). Comparison of dietary proximate and mineral values of two varieties of bean. Asian J Natu Appl Sci 2: 103-106.
- Adebiyi, J.A., Njobeh, P.B. and Kayitesi, E. (2019). Assessment of nutritional and phytochemical quality of Dawadawa (an African fermented condiment) produced from Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea). Microchem J. 149:104034.
- Adebowale, O.J. and Maliki, K. (2011). Effect of fermentation period on the chemical composition and functional properties of Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seed flour. Int. Food Res. J. 18, 1329–1333.
- Adebowale, Y.A., Schwarzenbolz, U. and Henle, T. (2011). Protein isolates from Bambara groundnut (Voandzeia Subterranean L.): chemical characterization and functional properties. Int J Food Prop. 14:758–75.