Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Sensory and Chemical Composition of Maize Pudding (Elekute-ogede) Produced From Maize-bambara Groundnut Blends

Sensory and Chemical Composition of Maize Pudding (Elekute-ogede) Produced From Maize-bambara Groundnut Blends

Sensory and Chemical Composition of Maize Pudding (Elekute-ogede) Produced From Maize-Bambara Groundnut Blends

Chapter One

The Objective of the Study

The aim of this study is to examine the sensory and chemical composition of maize pudding (elekute-ogede) produced from maize-bambara groundnut flour blends.



 Production and Distribution of Maize (Zea mays L)

Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops used in the human diet in large parts of the world and it is an important feed component for livestock. In terms of total world production, maize on average over the last five years out ranked paddy rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum).

Global production exceeds 600 metric tons (McDonald and Nicol, 2005), with about 60% produced in the developed countries, particularly by the United States of America, China produces 27% of the world’s maize and the rest is grown in countries of Africa, Latin America, and southern Asia with a large proportion being produced in the tropics and subtropics. World total maize consumption and production of 2016-17 are shown in graphically below. Total world maize production is 40,861 million bushels. As this graph showed that after U.S, China is largest maize production with 8,643 million bushels while production of maize from Brazil, Eu-27, Argentina, India is 3405, 1437 and 965 respectively.

Total world maize consumption is 40,429 million bushels, U.S is largest maize consumption with 12,360 while China is second largest maize consumption 8937 million bushels. By the early 20th century, maize had become one of China’s major crops. The maize area expanded to 10 million ha, approximately 12% of total cultivated area, between 1900 and 1930. The area sown to maize continued to increase rapidly during subsequent periods; in 22 provinces (not including northeastern China and Inner Mongolia) it increased by 20% between the periods 1937-1945 and 1946-1949 (Wei et al., 2014).

Next to rice, wheat, and millet, maize was the fourth most cultivated cereal crop in China in 1949, when the People’s Republic of China was established. By 1951, maize had exceeded millet in terms of sown area, and maize took its place as the third most cultivated cereal crop in China. Maize area continued to increase substantially during the 1950s, as yields increased. In recent years, however, trends in maize area and production have exhibited higher levels of variability.

The genus Zea consists of four species of which Zea mays L. is economically important. The other Zea species, referred to as teosintes, are largely wild grasses native to Mexico and Central America. The number of chromosomes in Zea mays is 2n = 20. The tribe Andropogoneae comprises seven genera, namely old and new world groups. Old world comprises Coix (2n = 10/20), Chionachne (2n = 20), Sclerachne (2n = 20), Trilobachne (2n = 20), and Polytoca (2n = 20), and new world group has Zea and Tripsacum (Biology of maize, 2011).

Nutritive value of maize


Maize provides approximately 1400 Kcal/100 g (on a dry basis) of energy that is sufficient to maintain the equilibrium. This energy is also used to perform different types of physiological task. Maize or corn can be consumed as a source of energy in the form of breakfast cereals as cornflakes, chapattis, tortillas, etc. Maize also contains an appreciable amount of fat content that helps in the carrier of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. The presence of fat in maize or corn is responsible for much of the texture and flavour of food. Thus it helps in increasing the palatability (Longvah et al., 2017).

The fat content beneath the skin known as the subcutaneous fat also serves as an insulating material for the body and is effective in preventing heat loss. Moreover, fat content also acts as a body reservoir for energy conservation purpose (Higgins, 2004).

Another important component in maize after fat is dietary fibre and is defined as the portion of food derived from plant cell, which is resistant to hydrolysis or digestion by the elementary enzyme system in human beings. However, some of the bacteria in the large intestine can degrade some components of fibre releasing products that can be absorbed into the body and also used as a source of energy. Crude fibre is the residue remaining after the treatment with hot sulphuric acid, alkali and alcohol. The major component of crude fibre is a polysaccharide called cellulose and a part of dietary fibre. Insoluble fibres are indigestible and insoluble in water, while soluble fibres are indigestible but soluble in water. Total fibre is the sum of insoluble and soluble fibres. Dietary fibre is isolated and extracted from a synthetic fibre that has proven health benefits. Resistant starch also functions as dietary fibre (Higgins, 2004; Willis et al., 2009; Longvah et al., 2017).





Maize (Zea mays L) and Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean) used in the research work was purchased from a local market in Owo, Ondo State. Other materials such as pepper, ripe plantain, salt, onions, palm oil etc were also purchased in the same market in Owo. The samples were processed in food processing laboratory and the chemical composition (proximate analysis) was carried out in the chemistry laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic Owo, Ondo State.


Production of maize flour

Whole maize was dehusked and shelled from the cob. The grains were sorted out from plant debris, stones and other foreign materials, and were then washed in water to remove other tiny dirt particles that were present on the grains. The maize was divided into three (3), each undergoing different methods of preparation. The first maize was soaked for 48 hours (fermentation) while the second was soaked for 72 hours (3 days), lastly the third maize was washed, drained and covered till germination occurred. The grains that were soaked were drained and dried at 60oC in a hot air oven. The dried maize grains were then milled into flour using attrition mill, the germinated grain was dried at 60oC in hot air oven after which it was milled using attrition mill. The three samples of maize flour were kept for further analysis.




Table 4.1: Sensory attributes of Elekute ogede produced from maize and Bambara groundnut flour blends





Elekute is a maize based pudding consumed mostly in the south-western part of Nigeria. It is produced locally by milling roasted maize into a fine powder and the addition of slurry over ripe plantain, seasoned with spices. Elekute ogede is consumed by both children. But just as with other mainly maize based food products, consumption of Elekute is associated with protein deficiency which can cause kwarshiorko in children. As a result of the protein deficient nutritional status (PEM), this work is aimed to examine the sensory and chemical composition of maize pudding produced from maize -bambara groundnut as a means of improving the protein contents of the food products. Therefore, conclusively, the fortification of Elekute-ogede with protein-rich foods materials like Bambara groundnut (vigna subterranean) can be a way out to the protein deficient nutritional status of Elekute ogede. Also the fermentation of the raw materials could be an improved means to improve the nutritional contents of the products.


It can be recommended that further research work can be carried out on the microbiology and storage life of the product, also the fortification of maize pudding with Bambara groundnut will help to improve the nutritional value of the food product.


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