Sensory and Chemical Properties of Groundnut-Sesame Enriched Snack (Kuli-kuli)
Objective of the study
The objective of the project research is to examine the sensory and chemical properties of sesame-groundnut enriched snacks (kulikuli).
REVIEWS OF RELATED LITERATURES
Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea Linn.)
Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea Linn., Palpilionoideae [Fabaceae/Leguminosae]) (Singh, 2009) is a native of Brazil and believed to have been introduced into Africa by the Portuguese (Anyanwu et al., 2001). The major groundnut producing countries in West Africa are Nigeria, Gambia, Togo, Republic of Benin, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Chad, Niger, Senegal, Mali and Upper Volta Guinea. As at 2008/2009, Nigeria is the largest producer of groundnut in Africa and fourth in the world (USDA Foreign Agricultural Service: Table 13 Groundnut Area, Yield, and Production). Nigeria, it is both a rainforest and savanna crops where the bulk is grown in latter zone than former zone (Opeke, 2006).
Groundnut is a very popular crop in Nigeria; cultivated across the nation. It is well known to indigenous people and put into series of uses by various indigenous inhabitants. Groundnut is also known and called with many names such as groundnut, African nut, Chinese nut, Manila nut, Kipper nut, hawlts nut, jar nut, earth chestnut, monkey nut, goober pea, and ground bean (Johnson, 2004). In Nigeria, it has many local names such as “epa” (Yoruba), “Ayayaa” (Hausa), “okpa”, “opapa”, “asibpko” (Ibo), “omizaguo” (Owan), “isagwe” (Benin). The popularity of groundnut in Nigeria is evidence in the famous Kano Groundnut Pyramid of 1950’s and 1960’s (Opeke, 2006).
According to Bashir (2013) prior to Nigeria’s independence in 1960, groundnut pyramids were a success story of the agricultural sector of the northern part of the country. Discovery of petroleum in the country led to abandonment of many agricultural products among which is groundnut. This act actually affected the Nigerian economy because larger population of the country earned their living through farming. Groundnut has the highest oil content of all food crops and is second only to soybean in term of protein content (20-30%) among the food legumes (Khan et al., 2004).
As a legume, it plays a huge role in feeding the world’s people and animals, particularly in the third world countries, where they meet as much as two thirds of human nutritional needs. Moreover, because they can pull nitrogen out of air, they do not need much chemical fertilizers. Thus, make it a better bargain for poor farmers who cannot afford fertilizers and boon to richer ones (Khan et al., 2004). A large number of food products are prepared from groundnuts namely boiled nuts, roasted nuts, salted nuts, groundnut milk, groundnut yoghurt, groundnut bars, groundnut butter, groundnut cheese, bakery product etc (Opeke, 2006; Vasatwiki, 2008).
Groundnut Nutritional Contribution in Comparison to Other Nuts
Proteins in Groundnuts
It is common knowledge that all meat, chicken, turkey, fish and dairy foods are rich in proteins. Foods from animal sources provide all the protein needed by human body, which means they contain all the essential amino acids. Apart from meat, legumes such as beans, peas, and groundnuts contain notable quantities of protein, more than any other nut. All amino acids (Schaafsma, 2000) must be present evenly in the body to supplement normal and active growth. Among the 20 amino acids 11 are non essential, and are continuously synthesized in the body through various reactions interlinking carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The other 9 amino acids happen to be essential ones which, ironically, cannot be synthesized by the body by itself, and hence are needed to be supplied through diet. So far it is known that, those proteins that contain all the essential amino acids in the required proportions are the complete proteins, such as casein (milk protein) and albumin (egg white protein). In addition to milk and eggs another vital source of protein is groundnuts.
Groundnuts contain all the essential amino acids necessary for normal body growth and metabolism (Hoffmann and Falvo, 2004). For example, lack of tryptophan in the diet may lead to pellagra, which is a very severe skin disorder, sometimes fatal (Seal et al., 2007). Similarly, phenylalanine another essential amino acid is associated with formation of epinephrine and norepinephrine, which are also called flight or fight hormones produced by the adrenal medulla and the brain (Young, 2006). Methionine is another essential amino acid for the synthesis of protein, and it acts as an initiating amino acid during translation of proteins. Tyrosine, another amino acid is associated with formation of melanin and thyroid hormones. All these amino acids are essential to prevent protein calorie malnutrition disorders such as Kwashiorkor (Shetty, 2006) and Marasmus (El Hassan et al., 2004). Groundnuts contain the above mentioned essential amino acids that are necessary for synthesis of proteins, and thus could be an indispensable component of human diet (Conkerton and Ory, 2006).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The main materials used for this project were Groundnut and sesame, both were purchased from the main market in Owo local govt. area in Ondo State. The production of the enrich snack (kuli-kuli) was produced using the above mentioned raw materials in the processing laboratory of Food Science and Technology, the analysis of the product was carried out in the chemistry laboratory of Food Science and Technology in Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State.
Preparation of kulikuli from groundnut and sesame
The groundnut and sesame was first sorted to remove any dirt/foreign materials, after which both (groundnut and sesame) were roasted separately, the roasted groundnut and sesame were sorted to select wholesome ones and milled into smooth paste separately using attrition mill. Groundnut and sesame paste were weighed 250g each using electronic balance and formulated into different ratios. Hundred grams of the formulated smooth paste was transferred into a mixing bowls and 0.5g of powdered dry pepper and 0.3g of salt were added as seasoning. They were thoroughly mixed in the bowl and transferred to properly cleaned chopping board. Vigorous kneading was applied to enable the oil to be extracted out of it. The mixture gradually harder and became sticky during the kneading process and oil was continually extracted. After which they were molded into ball shapes and fried using the oil extracted during the kneading process until a fairly brown colour was obtained. The produced “kuli-kuli” from the blends of groundnut and sesame was allowed to cool in a room temperature (29oC) for about 15 – 20min and then transferred to an air-tight container to keep the “kuli-kuli” crunchy and safe from microbes.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 4.1: Proximate Composition of kulikuli
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The findings of the study on enriched snacks “kulikuli” produced from the blends of sesame and groundnut shows the proximate and sensory properties of kulikuli. The results observed for proximate shows that GSD has the least moisture content indicating long shelflife of the sample, GSB has the higher ash content indicating that it has higher mineral content compared to other samples. The fat content decreases with an increase in sesame the prove that groundnut is rich in fat, the protein content of the samples was recorded highest in GSA and GSB, the fibre and carbohydrate content of the samples was recorded to be higher in GSA (fibre) and GSE (carbohydrate). The acceptability of sesame to groundnut Kulikuli in sensory parameters when compared with the pure groundnut showed low no significant difference. Hence sesame to groundnut Kulikuli produce a good snacks.
It can be recommended that inclusion of sesame into groundnut for kulikuli production will help to enhance or increase the nutritional, consumer acceptability as well as the utilization of this underutilized seed.
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