Sex Education as a Means of Solving the Problem of Abortion
Objectives Of The Study
The overall aim of this study is to critically assess Sex education as a means of solving the problem of abortion. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;
- Identify the factors influencing the sexual behavior of secondary school students.
- Find out if sex education is effectively taught in Nigerian secondary schools.
- Find out whether the teaching of sex education have significantly influenced students indulgence in Abortion.
- Find out whether the teaching of sex education have significantly influenced the prevalence of STD among secondary school students.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Our focus in this chapter is to critically examine relevant literature that would assist in explaining the research problem and furthermore recognize the efforts of scholars who had previously contributed immensely to similar research. The chapter intends to deepen the understanding of the study and close the perceived gaps.
Precisely, the chapter will be considered in three sub-headings:
- Conceptual Framework
- Theoretical Framework
- Empirical Review
Concept of Sexuality
Some people think that sex is the same thing as sexuality but in the actual fact there is a difference between sex and sexuality. Action Health Incorporate (2013) described sexuality as broad term that refers to a core dimension of being human which include sexuality, gender, sexuality and gender identity, sexuality orientation, emotional attachment, love and reproduction. This implies that sexuality encompasses human existence. Sexuality therefore includes all the feelings, sexuality thoughts, values, experiences, learning, ideas, values, imagining and behavior of persons, whether female or male. In other words sexuality is the sum total of who you are, what you believe, what you feel and how you respond.
In line with the opinion of Action Health Incorporated (AHI) Kaplan (2015) describes sexuality as the whole way a person goes about expressing himself or herself as sexual being. The author noted that sexuality is not just sexuality, as many people think about genitals, what we do with them and who we do it with. The author remarked that sexuality involves and is shaped beliefs, attitudes, experiences, physical, societal experiences. In this sense sexuality is the totality of who you are, what you believe, feel, how you respond, the way in which you have been acculturated, and socialized. In other words sexuality is an integral part all living thing including human being. Straus & Sussan (2019) describes sexuality as sum of biological characteristic that defines the spectrum of humans on female and males. The author identified wide range of characteristic that distinguishes human on the basis of reproductive function and anatomy and physiology. In the context of sex and sexuality therefore, while sex is restricted to biological characteristics that determines female or male. Sexuality encompasses the sum total of human being including sex.
Concept of Sex Education
According to Abu, & Akerele, (2016), sex education is a process whereby information is given or imparted to a group of young ones and which takes into account the development, growth, the anatomy and physiology of the human reproductive system and changes that occur from youth all through stages of adulthood. Sex education is the acquisition of knowledge that deals with human sexuality. It consists of instruction on the development of an understanding of the physical, mental, emotional, social, economic and psychological phases of human relations as they are affected by sex. In other words, sex education involves providing children with knowledge and concept that will enable them make informed and responsible decisions about sexual behaviors at all stages of their lives. The aims of sex education, according to British Medical Association Foundation for AIDS, are ambitious relating to the lifelong quality of relationships and personal behavior. It should be age appropriate and available to everyone through a variety of forms and informal settings. Since adolescents’ characteristics predispose them to high risky sexual activities, behavioral interventions are needed to reduce their at risk sexual behaviors. The present study is an attempt in this direction. Masvawure (2014), Sex education is needful and necessary for our young ones. Being mindful of the exposure given to our young ones in school, in the media and among their peers, sex education teaches our young ones about sexual intimacy, but also enlightens them on their reproductive systems, birth control, and sexually transmitted diseases. It also exposes them to their gender identity, gender role, family role, body images, sexual expression (what it entails and how to time it), intimacy and the marriage relationship. In sex education relevant important and accurate information about sexuality in both boys and girls are given depending on their age. It will be unfair and criminal to ignore or push aside the fact that they are aware of their sexuality; in whatever stage or state they are. Sex education should naturally be integrated into their lives as they grow up both by the parents, teachers and the society in a very mature way. Parents should answer their children’s questions properly and information according to their level of exposure and maturity. It will not be appropriate to look embarrassed or pretend sex never exists. We might be fooling ourselves and exposing these children to untimely dangerous curiosity. The children must be taught how to cope and handle their own sexual feeling, use of drugs and urges. Prior to the time of sex education, parents should develop good communication with their children. Be their friends, have positive attitude to sex, yourself. Good relevant sex education provides knowledge, and information is confidence. It has been noticed that well-informed children on male and female Anatomy handle puberty better than the uninformed ones. Sex education affects a child’s attitude positively. Each sex (male or female) becomes more tolerant of the others behaviour pattern and option. According to Masvawure (2014), a sexuality oriented child learns to believe in the quality of men and women, the sacrament of marriage and parental responsibilities. With well accepted sex education, there is usually a lower rate of unwanted pregnancy and spread of sexually transmitted diseases. To the pure, all things are pure. When sex is passed down to our children from a pure heart, they too receive it with a pure heart. It is not true that when children are taught anything about sex, they out rightly go and experiment with sex, with contraception, masturbation and homosexuality. These occur when they are ignorantly curios and when they are uneducated and exposed to unprotected sex and pornographic materials.
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e. mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
Population of the Study
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals, as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried out to assess the Sex education as a means of solving the problem of abortion among secondary school students using selected secondary school in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State. Hence, the population of this study comprises of students and teachers of the selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of two hundred (200) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which one hundred and fifty (150) were returned and all were validated. For this study a total of 150 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the Sex education as a means of solving the problem of abortion among secondary school students in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the Sex education as a means of solving the problem of abortion among secondary school students using selected secondary school in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to identify the factors influencing the sexual behavior of secondary school students, find out if sex education is effectively taught in Nigerian secondary schools, find out whether the teaching of sex education have significantly influenced students indulgence in sexual practices, and find out whether the teaching of sex education have significantly influenced the prevalence of STD among secondary school students.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students and teachers of selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- The factors influencing the sexual behavior of secondary school students includes: culture, lifestyles, ignorance, poverty and traditional believe, and peer influence.
- Sex education is not effectively taught in Nigerian secondary schools.
- The teaching of sex education significantly influences students indulgence in abortions.
- The teaching of sex education significantly influences the prevalence of STD among secondary school students.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- The education curriculum developers should introduce extra-curricular activities in schools that would promote sexuality health knowledge in schools from that of the formal classroom experiences.
- School managements of secondary schools should periodically invite guest lecturers to give health talks to students outside the normal student learning process so as to increase the knowledge of sexuality health.
- Nollywood film producers and film writers should write and produce films and short plays on risky sexual behaviours and its effect to help sensitize the nation television viewers on risky sexual behaviours.
- Sexuality education must be treated with utmost relevance by all parties just like any other subject in order to keep on meeting its objectives and even exceed it.
- Trainings and workshops should be organized for teachers to help them to be adequately prepared to deliver quality sexuality education.
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