Public Administration Project Topics

Staff Motivation and Job Performance of Niger Delta University Non-Academic Staff in Bayelsa State

Staff Motivation and Job Performance of Niger Delta University Non-Academic Staff in Bayelsa State

Staff Motivation and Job Performance of Niger Delta University Non-Academic Staff in Bayelsa State

Chapter One

Objectives of the Study.

The main objective of the study is to examine staff motivation and job performance. Specifically, this research work hopes to achieve the following objectives:

  1. To examine the factors which motivate employees to perform in Niger Delta University Non-academic staff in Bayelsa State
  2. To look at various techniques of motivating staff to performance in Niger Delta University Non-academic staff in Bayelsa State.
  3. To ascertain the effect of motivation on worker’s productivity.
  4. To identify the problems associated with the motivation of workers in Niger Delta University Non-academic staff in Bayelsa State.
  5. To suggest the solutions to such problems.



Conceptual Framework

Concept of motivation

Human motivation is a complex and well-studied field that has broad roots in a diverse collection of academic disciplines including psychology, sociology, education, political science, and economics. In simplified terms, motivation can be defined as, “what causes people to behave as they do” (Denhardt et al., 2018 ). Unfortunately, this simple definition hides the dynamic intricacies of the motivation literature.

The word motivation is coined from the Latin word motus, a form of the verb movere, which means to move, influence, affect, and excite. By motivation we then mean the degree to which a person is moved or aroused to act Rainey, (1998). Dictionaries simply describe motivation as “the goad to action” Mitchell, (1982), whereas scholars expand the term to the set of psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of individual’s behavior toward attaining a goal Robbins/Judge, (2018). The latter definition underlines three pillars of motivation. The first arousal has to do with the drive or energy that ignites behavior Baron, (2014). The second direction – has to do with the type of behavior that is exerted and whether it is in line with demand or organization goal Robbins/Judge, (2018). The third pillar persistence – deals with the lastingness of behavior. Though, this factor is of less importance, because persistence can be simply defined as the reaffirmation of the initial arousal and direction processes Mitchell, (1997).

There tends to be a general consensus as to the definition of motivation which reflects that: (1) motivation is goal directed (Lawler, 1994), (2) motivation outlines the achievement and pursuit of goals (Denhardt et al., 2018) and (3) motivation is environmentally dependent (Pettinger, 1996). Campbell and Pritchard (1976) define motivation as being the set of psychological processes that cause the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior.

Because motivation is so difficult to define, it may help in determining what motivation is not. Denhardt, Denhardt and Aristigueta (2018) outline four examples. Motivation is not: (1) directly observable, (2) the same as satisfaction, (3) always conscious, and (4) directly controllable.

Motivation is not directly observable. “Motivation is an internal state that causes people to behave in a particular way to accomplish particular goals and purposes. It is possible to observe the outward manifestations of motivation but not motivation itself” (Denhardt et al., 2018). For instance, the acquisition of money may be an extrinsic motivator, but it is simply the manifestation of the internal drive to meet intrinsic needs like purchasing food, paying rent for shelter, or acquiring high social status.

Motivation is not the same as satisfaction. “Put simply, satisfaction is past oriented, whereas motivation is future oriented” (Denhardt et al., 2018). While a worker may be very satisfied by the compensation of their job, there are countless instances where these workers are not entirely motivated to continue doing what they (Igalens & Roussel, 1999).

Motivation is not always conscious. Unconscious motivation is quite central to Sigmund Freud’s theories of human behavior. Freud posits that most human behavior is the result of unconscious repressed memories, impulses, and desires that influence and drive many human behaviors (Freud, 1976). A manifestation of this idea is the “Freudian slip” where an accidental word slip actually betrays true internal feelings and intentions.

Motivation is not directly controllable. “Motivation is not something that people do to others. Motivation occurs within people’s minds and hearts. Managers can influence the motivational process, but they cannot control it” (Denhardt et al., 2018).

The purpose of this paper is to give a detailed review of the literature of motivation in a thematic and quasi-chronological fashion. This will permit the reader to gain a thorough understanding of the many facets of motivation theories in modern literature. A cursory view of the literature will show that there are two central categories of motivation theories: content and process theories.

Content theories are centered around the assumption that individuals all share a similar set of human needs and that we are all motivated to satisfy those needs (e.g., Maslow, 1946; McGregor, 1957; Herzberg, 1968; Alderfer, 1969; McClelland, 1988). Process theories are centered around the rational cognitive process and say that while most people may have similar needs, the importance and placement of those needs is different for everyone; that it is something highly subjective (e.g., Skinner, 1935; Festinger, 1957; Adams, 2013; Vroom, 1967; Porter & Lawler, 1968; Kahler, 1975; Locke et al., 1990).





This chapter attempts to examine the various tools used in carrying out this research work. The chapter includes the methods of research design, data collection and presentation. It will present in detail the respondents responses to the research questions, section by section. The presentation will is in tabular form for quantitative data and descriptive analyses.

Area of Study

Niger Delta University (NDU) is in Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State in southern part of Nigeria. It was established in 2000. It is a Bayelsa state government-funded university. in 2002, It was established by Chief DSP Alamieyeseigha, then governor of Bayelsa state. It has two main campuses, one in the state capital, Yenagoa, which contains the law faculty, and the other in Amassoma. It also has its teaching hospital known as Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital (NDUTH) in Okolobiri. Niger Delta University has come a long way since its establishment, Its main campus in Amassoma is in a temporary site, with work on the permanent site ongoing. The university offers education at Bachelor, Masters and PhD levels. It is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities. It is accredited and recognized by the National Universities Commission (NUC).

 Source of Data

Well-structured questionnaires and use of focus groups were deployed to collect primary data for the research and secondary sources of data collection used include published reports and results of the organization. The use of secondary source of information afforded the opportunity to confirm the validity or otherwise the respondent’s response.

  Research Design

The research design used in this study is the case study design. Niger Delta University Non-academic staff in Bayelsa State was selected for use as the case study. 300 questionnaires were distributed in the organization, giving a total of 300 respondents as the sample size.

It involves conduction of flexible interviews and the circulation of carefully designed questionnaires to the various departments of the organization nation wide.

Population of study

Population is defined as the total number of persons in a universe. Eheduru (2016) defined it as the “totality of all cases which possesses a set of well defined characteristic or conform to some design.” it is the entire group of items which the researcher wishes to study and plan to generalize on. Thus, this research work includes all categories and departments of Niger Delta University Non-academic staff in Bayelsa State in Nigeria. But unfortunately for now the study could not cover other organizations and public institutions currently operating in Nigeria due to time and cost constraints, the research therefore, is limited to the survey to Niger Delta University Non-academic staff in Bayelsa State.



Data Presentation

In analyzing the data for this study, it is important to know the socio-demographic features of the respondents used in this study. Such demographic features will act as prelude to the data analysis.

Thus, such socio-demographic features like age, marital status, sex, and educational background of the respondents will be analyzed in this study. From the total of 160 questionnaires administered, only 153 were successfully retrieved and completed.



 Summary of Findings

So far, this study explore on the staff motivation and job performance, a case study of Niger Delta University Non-academic staff in Bayelsa State. The study employed the primary data collection method, and the four hypotheses were tested with the use of chi-square statistics.

Based on the research objectives, the following findings were gathered:

  1. In the course of this research, it was discovered that there is a positive relationship between the quality of supervision and motivation to work. Most of the respondents used in this study-expressed satisfaction with their boss leadership style. This shows that there is a cordial relationship between leaders and most of their subordinates in the organization.
  2. It is also discovered that in the course of this study, many of the workers in the company are not happy with the fringe benefits, which they get from the company. In fact, many of the workers interviewed express their views that the fringe benefits enjoyed by them in the company are not in line with present day realities. iii. There was also the belief by majority of the respondents included in this study that what obtains in other companies are better than what obtained in their own.
  3. Many of the workers included in this study-expressed satisfaction with the company’s appraisal policy.
  4. Finally, another important finding of this study is that many workers are some how satisfied with the training policy of the company. But they advocated for more training with regularity and richer contents than cover both work and personal development areas. However, interview with some of the management have shown that the company is considering using the e-learning platform to deliver some of the lerarning interventions to save cost and take good advantages of benefits of using elearning which according to CIPD (2022), e-learning offers the following advantages over traditional offline methods:
    • The learner is at the center of the process and has full control over the pace of the learning
    • Interactively, at its best, is engaging and increases the effectiveness of learning, especially retention.
    • It is flexible regarding time and place of learning.
    • Consistency of presentation- the computer never has a ‘bad day’.
    • Materials stored electronically can be repurposed as often as necessary ( e.g. bulletin board discussions can be edited to form FAQs or case studies) • It can provide support for users with learning difficulties.


Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. Organization leadership and management should provide adequate fringe benefits to the workers and such benefits should be geared towards meeting the needs of the workers. The provision of adequate fringe benefits to the workers will propel (motivate) them to put in their best in their contribution to the attainment of corporate objectives.
  2. The rewards workers enjoy in the company should be benchmarked and at par favorably with the reward which workers in other similar industries or companies enjoy. This is important because workers perception of what obtained in other organizations can affect their level of motivation.
  • The management of the company should also encourage the training of workers. Learning and development opportunities is an important factor in motivating employees for superior performance.
  1. Managers; Supervisors and other workers who supervise and lead others should be equipped with management and leadership skills in other to manage and lead their team well and contribute to favourable work place environment for employee motivation and engagement.
  2. Other recommendations for employee motivation based on this study are:
  3. Hire the right people from the start. People who are happy with themselves, self- fulfilled, and respectful of others. Employees are more in charge of their overall happiness in life than their managers. It is also very important to hire the right type of person for the type of job that will be performed. For example: Disney: imagination; BMW: Technical engineering and FMI -Attention to detail and Customer service. If you don’t hire the right people from the start, no amount of management or leadership will be able to motivate the employees.


  1. Intrinsic (internal) motivators are far more powerful than extrinsic incentives, commissions, or bonuses. Done well the extrinsic motivators compliment the intrinsic motivators. Incentives and bonus plans define results for performance, but they do not manage, or in the long term, motivate employees. Incentives and bonus plans do require more attentive management and result in key metrics being more visible. Incentive systems are also good at setting clear expectations between the manager and the employee.
  2. Managers should always proactively schedule one-on-one time with their employees.Frequent communication is essential to maintaining a motivated employee. Quality time spent with your employees can be a huge enabler for understanding their current motivators.
  3. The strength or weakness of the employee’s peers/ co-workersand the culture of the company build-up or drain the employee’s energy and motivation. We all want to be on a winning team.
  4. Great leaders create a vision and common team goalsto maintain the motivation of their employees over a long period of time. The management team must demonstrate success and growth of the organization. The current success of the business and the belief or trust on where the business will go in the future is very important to an employee’s motivation.
  5. The overallcompensation plan has to be competitive. It is important to check annually on what the current market range is for each particular position. Compensation plans have to be clearly communicated and understood between the manager and employee.
  6. There must be an availability of meaningful work.There must also be organization and a sense of urgency by the team to get the work done. There should always be a good queue of work to be accomplished by each person. Idle time without direction is generally more of a de-motivator than being busy and engaged.
  7. Abalanced work and personal life can enhance or detract from an employee’s motivation.


This research work was carried out with the aim of looking at the motivation of employees in Niger Delta University Non-academic staff in Bayelsa State. From the analysis of data and findings of such analysis, it was discovered that such motivational factors like the quality of supervision; the nature of fringe benefits enjoyed by the workers; worker’s perception of the reward he gets in the organization in relation to what other workers of similar status get and also his perception of what is obtained in his organization in relation to others Identifying the impact of each of these variables on employees‟ performance from the data analysis and interpretation, the following conclusions were drawn:

If managers wish to be effective, they need to have at least a basic understanding of motivation and the different motivational theories that try to explain the concept of motivation. They must be able to grasp the key components of theories such as Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs, and Herzberg‟s two-factor theory and make an effort to truly understand their employees. It is only by grasping these concepts that they can hope to effectively bring about continual high performance in their workers.

This study, survey results, and interviews have given us some valuable insight into motivation and its role in the workplace. Managers need to provide growth opportunity and challenging jobs in order to better motivate today’s workers. Without these challenges and opportunities for growth, employees may not see a need to perform highly at work. We have seen that recognition plays a major role in employees‟ motivation and that it is a very effective motivator. Employees want and need to feel that their contributions make a difference and recognition is one way to satisfy those wants or needs

This research and interviews have confirmed that the use of cash rewards can be an effective way to motivate employees, and the majority of our survey respondents agree with this statement.

In conclusion, when it comes to bringing out the best performance of employees, quality of supervision and relationship with the supervisor; recognition and adequate cash rewards are effective motivators.

Thus, it is important for organization to encourage and improve these motivational factors in the company in order to get optimum productivity from the workers.

The implication of this study cannot be overemphasized as this study will educate the management of the organization (especially the organization under study) on how to motivate their workers to performance. The findings of this study will generate people’s interest in researching into other areas of motivation in the organization, which will enrich the literature on motivation as a phenomenon.

In a nutshell, the study will enrich people’s knowledge in this area of organizational behaviour and management of people in the work place.


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