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Statistical Analysis on Pupils Enrolment in the Universal Basic Education: A Case Study of Ilorin East Local Government Area, Oke-Oyi Kwara State

Statistical Analysis on Pupils Enrolment in the Universal Basic Education A Case Study of Ilorin East Local Government Area, Oke-Oyi Kwara State

Statistical Analysis on Pupils Enrolment in the Universal Basic Education: A Case Study of Ilorin East Local Government Area, Oke-Oyi Kwara State

Chapter One


The survey is embarked upon in order to study the admission parttern of student in Ilorin East Local government in Kwara State.

The following are aims and objectives of the study.

To verify if gender depend or year of admission

To make a yearly comparisons on admission

To determine the yearly admission of female pupils

To test if there is linear relationship between the admission of the gender.




Enrolment as used here refers to the number of students at primary school (see Page and Thomas, 1979). There are four aspects of educational participation: enrolment, attainment, achievement, and wastage. All these are linked statistically in at least two ways. First, the levels of attainment, performance and wastage are

all conditional on  the  initial decision of whether to enrol. Second, the factors that affect any one aspect of participation also affect the others, so levels of enrolment, performance, attainment, and wastage are interdependent (Hyde, 1991).

In its broadest meaning, education is any process by which an individual gains knowledge or insight, or

develops  attitudes  and/or  skills.  In  its strict sense,, it is a process to attain acculturation through which the individual is helped to attain the development of his potentialities, and their maximum activation when necessary, according to the right reason and to achieve thereby his perfect self-fulfillment. It is concerned with the cultivation of “the whole person” including intellectual, affective, character and psychomotor development.


In Nigeria, the National Policy on Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1981) stated measures to improve girls’ access to primary education, most of which have been implemented (see World Bank, 1994b). These include: (a) actions to ensure the success and universality of the Universal Primary Education (UPE) scheme first introduced in 1976, by mounting a powerful campaign, using all avenues of communication, to make parents education-conscious and awaken in them a burning zeal for education for their children, (b) absorbing suitable Koranic

schools   and   Islamiyya   schools   with necessary adjustment of curricula, into the primary school system; (c) special efforts by Ministries of Education and Local Government Authorities in conjunction with Ministries of Community Development and Social Welfare and of Information, to encourage parents to send their daughters to school; (d) discouraging the incidence of drop-outs; and (e) encouraging and welcoming the contribution of Voluntary Agencies, Communities and private individuals in the establishment and management of primary schools alongside those provided by the State governments as long as they

meet the minimum standards laid down by the Federal Government. The 1993 Master Plan the government expressed its intention to strengthen the women education branch of the Federal Ministry of Education and Youth Development and to develop appropriate gender-fair curricula for all categories of the target population. Table 2 also shows its programme, projects, strategies and expected output with respect to the primary education of girls. In the same vein, the master plan envisaged that by 1994 primary school enrolment would be

85.2 percent, reaching 99.6 percent by the year 2000. Unfortunately, adverse economic situation and the accompanying tight education budgets had made most of these provisions mere rhetorics. By 1994 the actual enrolment fell drastically to 65 percent (see table 1) as against the projection of 85.2 percent. In addition,, the  data  in  table  3  show  that primary enrolment ratio in Nigeria is very gloomy when compared both to the policy objective/target (a far cry from it) and to data from some smaller and non-oil producing African countries. This ugly scenario was also amplified recently by the World Bank social sector study of Nigeria (see World Bank, 1994). Since primary education is the instrument for economic and social development (see World Bank, 1995; Anyanwu, 1991a, b; 1996), with this poor enrolment scenario Nigeria’s development capability is indeed in jeopardy. In this study we shall investigate and analyze the factors responsible for this unpleasant policy- achievement divergence. This has resulted in adverse educational conditions for girls. Girls, the rural poor, children from linguistic and ethnic minorities, nomads, street and working children, and children with special needs go to school less than others.

In part, this Nigerian situation reflects limited access, in part, lower demand. In addition to a shortage of school spaces for girls, in many states parents’ demand for education for their daughters is low, reflecting both cultural norms and girls’ work in and around the home. Literate parents are more likely than illiterate ones to enroll their daughters in school and the regions with the highest proportions of illiterate adults are therefore those with the widest gender gaps. Overcoming the gender gap will require not only providing school places for girls but also overcoming many parents’ ignorance of the gains that will result from enrolling their female children (World Bank, 1995a).

Internationally, many governments, non-governmental organizations, donor agencies and communities have adopted varied  approaches  to  raise  girls’ and women’s    attendance    in  educational programmes. These efforts have resulted in experimentation with multigrade classrooms, double-shifting, and with feeder and satellite schools at the primary level, with radio education and correspondence course at the post- primary levels, and with literacy programmes for adults. Educational opportunities for females have also been increased by eliminating discriminatory admission practices and instituting quotas that reserve places for them in educational programmes (Bellew and King, 1991). Other measures include the use of village education committees as in Pakistan, the payment of stipends to girls as in Bangladesh, educating parents about ways to improve their children’s development skills and to provide better opportunities for the children of poor families to succeed in school as in Mexico,  and  fueling  Nigerian women’s entrepreneurial drive through a pilot programme of management training for rural (mostly illiterate) business women




Study Design

It is a term used to describe a number of decisions which need to be taken regarding the collection of data before they are collected. (Nwana, 1981). It provides guidelines which direct the researcher towards solving the research problem and may vary depending on the nature of the problem being studied. According to Okaja ( 2003, p. 2),” research design means the structuring of investigation aimed at identifying variables and their relationship, it is used for the purpose of obtaining data to enable the investigator test hypothesis or answer research question by providing procedural outline for conducting research”. It is therefore, an outline or scheme that serves as a useful guide to the researcher in his efforts to generate data for his study.

This research is a descriptive survey and employed documentary statistics.

Sources of Data

The data for this study were generated from two main sources; Primary sources and secondary sources. The primary sources include observation. The secondary sources include journals, bulletins, textbooks and the internet.

Population and sample of the study

A study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitute of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description (Prince Udoyen: 2019). In this study the study population constitute of all the primary schools in kwara state. It studied government policies, and up-to-date available records to address the issue. Data used for the analysis were primary schools, teachers and primary school enrollment rate in kwara State from 2001-2007.



Research Question 1:

What is the number of school pupils enrollment into primary schools in kwara State in the year (2001-2007)?

Table 1 above indicates that 679,160 pupils enrolled into 461 primary schools over a period of 7years in kwara State. The distribution shows unsteady rise and decrease in enrollment in 2007 and almost a halt in 2004. In 2003, enrollment witnessed  sharp increase  to 115,981 in 2003 from 104,621 pupils in 2001, representing only a 4% change over the period. However, the change in enrollment reviews a form which is neither consistent nor predictable indicating a clear reflection of failure in educational planning policy and implementation.




This survey rightly concludes that enrolment of the girl-child to primary education in kwara State is unimpressively low and calls for concern. A place where yearly primary school enrollment of girl-child increased only by a little above a thousand over a 7years period shows a very slow increase rate indicating a crawling progress in educational sector. Also, a lower enrollment rate among rural children confirms the typical agrarian nature of kwara State of Nigeria. This has also proved the rural economic nature,  and culture of the people which lay  more emphasis on girls been more useful in farms and kitchens and invariably financial assets in terms of early marriage rather than attend schools. With a population of 80% of rural parents; farming and early marriages are economically more viable than investing in  girls-education whose returns, if at all, comes after 15 or more years. On this note, it is significant to bear in mind that female rights and privileges are grossly trampled upon by tradition,  religious norms  and values,  political and economic culture. Universal compulsory Primary education is crucial  for national, economic and social advancement of the girl children in particular. This remains a goal for all developing countries to achieve by 2015, but one that will not be reached in kwara State, without a significant acceleration of current progress.


This paper therefore recommends the following:

  1. Government  should see the need for urgent provision of adequate and financial support as  to ensure quality primary education improvement in rural areas, in particular.
  2. Female education should be encouraged to address gender  disparity,  special  motivators such as scholarships, bursary allowances, free tuition up to higher  institutions  and  automatic employment opportunities for girls who successfully complete their education should be in place.
  3. Government should pay more attention to infrastructural development as to enable school enroll more girls of school age in the state and provide facilities that are gender friendly.
  4. Adequate provision of facilities and socio-economic amenities in rural areas in order to encourage teaching and learning should not be compromised by government.
  5. As a predominantly rural state, kwara State of Nigeria should be charged with educational reform programmes so as to bring about fast growth and development of the State.
  6. An institutional reform should be put in place by government that will bring more women into teaching and administrative positions. Also, a routine sensitization campaign to raise community awareness about the value of girl’s education should be encouraged by government and school heads.
  7. Government should introduce civic/citizenship education in schools where the girl-child understands her right to education. Children’s right to education recognizes children as persons and worthy citizens rather than as the property of their parents or as small and vulnerable “not yets” (Verhellen, 1999). Not teaching children about their rights is a violation of rights in itself and a denial of their status as citizens.


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  • Ejembi, C. (1994) “A study on Rural Women in Igabi L.G.A. The girl child: The future of mankind. Kaduna State Women Commission and UNICEF.
  • Federal Ministry of Education (2005) School Census. Nigeria.
  • Federal Republic of Nigeria. (2004) National Policy on Education. Lagos: NERDC Press.
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