Teaching Strategies and Teacher’s Effectiveness. Case of Study Some Selected Schools in Yaounde Municipality
Purpose of the Study
This study aimed at investigating the Teaching strategies and teacher’s effectiveness. Case of study some selected schools in Yaounde municipality. Specifically the study sought to;
- examine the impact of teaching strategies on teacher’s effectiveness in secondary schools in Yaounde municipality.
- examine the impact of teaching strategies on teacher’s productivity.
- examine the impact of teaching strategies on students academic performance in the post primary schools in Yaounde municipality Area.
The concept of Teaching Strategy
Teaching strategy is a generalized plan for a lesson which includes structure, instructional objectives and an outline of planned tactics, necessary to implement the strategies (Stone and Morris, in Issac, 2010). Furthermore, Issac (2010) explains that teaching tactics are that behavior of the teacher which he manifests in the class i.e., the developments of the teaching strategies, giving proper stimulus for timely responses, drilling the learnt responses, increasing the responses by extra activities and so on.
In this paper, we use term strategy to imply thoughtful planning to do something. When we use the term method, it implies some orderly way of doing something. Thus, we use the terms technique and procedure as synonyms to signify a series of steps that one takes to employ any general model being used in the classroom. Each of these aspects emanate from a broader and more encompassing model (Orlich, Harder, Callahan, Trevisan, & Brown, 2010:4). Furthermore, the following are the difference between teaching method and teaching strategy in more detail:
Teaching Method: (1) it is limited to the presentation of subject matter; (2) methods come under strategy; (3) it is a micro approach; (4) teaching as an art; (5) effective presentation of subject matter; (6) classical Theory of human organization; (7) work is important. Teaching Strategy: (1) when we try to achieve some objectives by any method it becomes strategies; (2) strategy is actually a combination of different method; (3) for E.g. Lecture or textbook or question answer method can be never be used separately; (4) it is a macro approach; (5) it considers teaching as science; (6) its purpose is to create conducive learning environment; (7) it is based on modern theories of organization; (8) (pre determined objectives, becomes strategy); (8) behavior of students and teachers and their mutual relationship.
B. The Position of Teaching Strategy in Curriculum Development
Taba developed a Grades 1 through 8 social studies curriculum organized around teaching-learning units (Taba, 1971 in Lunenbur, 2011:2). In the process, a curriculum model evolved that is applicable to many types of curricula and that can be used in many different kinds of school settings and school levels: elementary school, middle school, and high school. The model includes an organization of, and relationships among, five mutually interactive elements: objectives, content, learning experiences, teaching strategies, and evaluative measures so that a system of teaching and learning is represented.
C. Designing Teaching Strategies
Conducting a teaching activity is essentially a network or set of decisions that the trainer takes to correlate the priority elements of his work and to build the best solution with respect to the educational situation again. The one who instructs must find a rational and appropriate formula to combine methods, procedures, techniques, means and forms of organization that lead to an optimal use of the potential of the trained subjects (Neacşu, 1990:219-220). Choosing the procedures for training in relation to the trained subject is the teaching strategy. It is well known that the teaching strategy is the key tool in the instructional design (Ştefan, 2003; Reiser & Dempsey, 2011; & Regeluth, 2013).
In this chapter, we would describe how the study was carried out.
It is a term used to describe a number of decisions which need to be taken regarding the collection of data before they are collected. (Nwana, 1981). It provides guidelines which direct the researcher towards solving the research problem and may vary depending on the nature of the problem being studied. According to Okaja ( 2003, p. 2),” research design means the structuring of investigation aimed at identifying variables and their relationship, it is used for the purpose of obtaining data to enable the investigator test hypothesis or answer research question by providing procedural outline for conducting research”. It is therefore, an outline or scheme that serves as a useful guide to the researcher in his efforts to generate data for his study.
This cross-sectional study used mixed methods (both quantitative and qualitative). It is used to obtain the peoples opinion through questionnaire.
Sources of Data
The data for this study were generated from two main sources; Primary sources and secondary sources. The primary sources include questionnaire, interviews and observation. The secondary sources include journals, bulletins, textbooks and the internet.
Population of the study
A study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitute of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description (Prince Udoyen: 2019). In this study the study population constitute of 1421 from all the senior secondary schools in Yaounde municipality.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Gender of Teachers
Both male and female teachers were represented in the sample, which was slightly dominated by female teachers (56%) while male teachers constitute 44% of the participants. It was observed in the field that in most schools, the female population is greater than the male population of teachers. This indicated that more females are getting into the teaching profession than their male counterpart. Principals, being the central source of leadership influence are expected to look into gender issues of teachers to facilitate continuous school improvement. Therefore, the principal should put in strategies to know the insight of female teachers’ problems and how to solve these problems to improve on their productivity.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Results from findings showed that teaching strategies influence the effectiveness/productivity of teachers in Government Secondary Schools in Yaounde municipality. Of all these strategies, demonstration influences the productivity of teachers more than the other strategies with a contingency coefficient (c.c.) value of 0.61, followed by instructional strategies (c.c. =0.51), experimental strategies (c.c.= 0.43) and lastly communication strategies (c.c.=0.36). Findings concluded that, principals’ strategies have a direct relationship with teachers’ productivity. Therefore, there is a correlation between principals’ leadership/management strategies, teachers’ productivity and school effectiveness. In addition, effective collaboration amongst teachers is necessary for teachers’ effectiveness. On a general note, principals are recommended to put in strategies that will enhance effective communication, conflict management, motivation and supervision to improve on the productivity of teachers. The specific recommendations include the following:
1) Given that motivation is an integral part of teachers’ job performance, principals should employ motivational strategies that will meet the needs of teacher to improve on their performance.
2) Supervision of teachers should be based on improvement and not sanction. Principals should clearly state their objectives of supervision and communicate it to teachers to enable the principal gather relevant information during the process that may assist in improving the productivity of teachers.
3) Principals should establish and encourage culture and climate that encourages collaboration and reduce conflict amongst teachers.
4) Communication is relevant for effective implementation of goals and objectives. As such, principals should put in effective communication procedures for teachers to have relevant and reliable information on time.
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