Public Health Project Topics

The Activities of World Health Organization in Nigeria: A Case Study of Abuja

The Activities of World Health Organization in Nigeria A Case Study of Abuja

The Activities of World Health Organization in Nigeria: A Case Study of Abuja

Chapter One

 Objectives of the Study

The study aimed to achieve the following specific objectives:

  1. To assess the nature and scope of the WHO’s activities in Abuja, Nigeria.
  2. To evaluate the effectiveness of WHO interventions in addressing healthcare challenges in Abuja.
  3. To analyze the impact of the WHO’s activities on healthcare infrastructure and outcomes in Abuja.



Conceptual Review

World Health Organization (WHO) Interventions in Abuja

The World Health Organization (WHO) has been actively involved in healthcare initiatives in Abuja, reflecting its commitment to addressing the diverse health challenges within the region. As part of its global efforts to assess and enhance healthcare access and quality, the WHO has strategically focused on 204 countries, including Nigeria. Abuja, being the nation’s capital, holds particular significance as a target for the WHO’s interventions, showcasing its dedication to improving health outcomes in strategic locations.

The Lancet Nigeria Commission highlights the importance of investing in health for the future of the nation, serving as a testament to the WHO’s commitment to influencing policy and fostering strategic initiatives in Abuja. Through extensive research and collaboration, the WHO has played a pivotal role in shaping comprehensive strategies to address prevalent health challenges in the region.

A key program exemplifying the WHO’s commitment is the UHC service coverage index, reported by the World Bank in their Global Health Observatory in 2023. This index reflects the WHO’s efforts to drive universal health coverage in Abuja and Nigeria at large. By strategically implementing and assessing the impact of this program, the WHO has contributed significantly to improving healthcare accessibility and inclusivity in Abuja.

The Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) conducted by the National Population Commission (NPC) have provided a wealth of data foundational to the WHO’s interventions. These surveys, conducted in 2008, 2018, and 2023, offer crucial insights into the health landscape, aiding the WHO in tailoring programs to address specific demographic and health challenges in Abuja.

In summary, the WHO’s historical involvement in Abuja spans a range of programs and interventions, as evidenced by its strategic focus on global health indices, collaborative initiatives with national commissions, and utilization of empirical data from comprehensive surveys. The analysis of key programs and interventions underscores the WHO’s commitment to shaping a resilient and inclusive healthcare system in Abuja.

Healthcare Landscape in Abuja

The healthcare landscape in Abuja presents a complex scenario that necessitates a thorough examination of existing infrastructure and an overview of prevalent health challenges and disparities. Abuja, as the capital of Nigeria, plays a pivotal role in the nation’s health system, and understanding its healthcare environment is crucial for effective interventions.

The existing healthcare infrastructure in Abuja is characterized by a mix of public and private facilities. Empirical evidence from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys indicates a significant presence of healthcare facilities, including hospitals and clinics. However, the distribution and accessibility of these facilities may vary, posing challenges for residents in certain areas.

Despite the presence of healthcare infrastructure, Abuja grapples with notable health challenges. The Lancet Nigeria Commission emphasizes the importance of investing in health for the future of the nation. This commission sheds light on the existing health challenges that require strategic interventions. Moreover, the WHO’s global initiatives, as seen in the assessment of the Healthcare Access and Quality Index, indirectly contribute to understanding the healthcare landscape in Abuja.

Empirical reviews from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys provide insights into prevalent health challenges and disparities within the region. These challenges may include high maternal and child mortality rates, infectious diseases, and limited access to essential healthcare services. The WHO’s engagement in global health governance, as reflected in its Primary Health Care on the Road to Universal Health Coverage 2019 Monitoring Report, provides a broader perspective on the challenges faced by healthcare systems globally, influencing the healthcare landscape in Abuja.





The methodology section of this research serves as a blueprint outlining the approach and techniques employed in the investigation. Drawing on various research philosophies and approaches, the design and execution of this study were guided by a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the research design, population, sampling technique, data collection methods, data analysis, validity and reliability measures, and ethical considerations.

 Research Design

The research methodology for this study is rooted in a quantitative survey research design, a strategy widely acknowledged for its efficacy in gathering numerical data on predefined variables through the administration of structured questionnaires. This approach was deliberately selected to capitalize on its efficiency in collecting data from a large sample size, enabling the researcher to conduct robust statistical analyses to extract meaningful and reliable conclusions.

The adoption of a quantitative survey research design aligns seamlessly with the primary research objective, emphasizing the acquisition of a comprehensive understanding of prevalent views and perceptions within the specified target population. This design is well-suited for capturing the quantitative aspects of respondents’ opinions, facilitating the systematic exploration of patterns and trends inherent in the dataset.

Structured questionnaires constitute the principal instrument for data collection, allowing for a standardized and uniform approach to gathering information from participants. This standardized format helps mitigate potential biases and ensures a consistent collection process across diverse respondents, enhancing the reliability and validity of the data.

Furthermore, the choice of a quantitative survey research design underscores a commitment to objectivity and measurability in the research process. By focusing on numerical data, the study aims to employ statistical techniques that can illuminate patterns and relationships, contributing to a more rigorous and systematic analysis of the research questions.

Population of the Study

The selection of the target population for this study is critical to the robustness and applicability of the findings. In alignment with the research design, the population under consideration comprises professionals and stakeholders actively engaged in the field of business research. This strategic choice is rooted in the objective of obtaining insights and perspectives from individuals with direct experience and expertise in the subject matter.

The decision to set the target population at 1200 respondents is underpinned by a deliberate effort to ensure the representativeness of the sample. A larger sample size increases the likelihood of capturing a diverse array of views and experiences within the business research field, thereby enhancing the generalizability of the findings to a broader population. This is particularly important in a quantitative survey research design, where statistical analysis relies on the variability within the dataset for meaningful interpretation.



Data Presentation




Summary of Findings

The research findings present a comprehensive insight into the perceptions and opinions of the respondents regarding the World Health Organization’s (WHO) activities in Abuja, Nigeria. The study employed a quantitative survey research design, utilizing structured questionnaires to collect data from a diverse sample of 120 respondents. The demographic profile of the respondents, as depicted in Tables 4.2 to 4.4, revealed a varied representation in terms of age, gender, and educational levels, ensuring a broad spectrum of perspectives.

Tables 4.5 to 4.8 focus on specific health initiatives implemented by the WHO in Abuja. Respondents overwhelmingly acknowledged the organization’s efforts in areas such as vaccination programs, maternal and child health services, awareness campaigns on public health issues, and collaboration with local healthcare providers. These positive perceptions highlight the multifaceted approach of the WHO in addressing various health challenges in Abuja. The findings underscore the importance of these initiatives in shaping the healthcare landscape and fostering positive public opinions.

Moving on to Tables 4.9 to 4.12, which assessed the effectiveness of WHO interventions, the results indicated a significant level of agreement among respondents. The interventions were perceived as contributing positively to addressing healthcare challenges, improving maternal and child health outcomes, raising public awareness, and enhancing the overall healthcare system in Abuja. These findings emphasize the perceived efficacy of the WHO’s initiatives in tackling critical health issues and improving health outcomes in the region.

Tables 4.13 to 4.16 delved into broader aspects of the WHO’s impact on healthcare infrastructure, accessibility, mortality rates, and the correlation between its activities and positive health changes. The results consistently revealed positive perceptions among respondents. They strongly agreed that the WHO’s activities led to noticeable improvements in healthcare infrastructure, contributed to decreased mortality rates, enhanced healthcare accessibility, and correlated with positive health changes. These findings collectively suggest a holistic and far-reaching influence of the WHO in shaping the healthcare landscape in Abuja.

The quantitative data presented in Table 4.17 provided additional statistical insights, employing one-sample statistics to measure the mean, standard deviation, and standard error mean for specific aspects of the WHO’s activities. The mean scores reflected generally positive perceptions across different dimensions, reinforcing the overall positive trend observed in the survey results.

In summary, the study’s findings highlight the significant positive impact of the WHO’s activities in Abuja, Nigeria, as perceived by the respondents. The organization’s diverse initiatives across various health domains have garnered positive recognition, with respondents acknowledging their effectiveness in addressing healthcare challenges, improving health outcomes, and contributing to the overall development of the healthcare system in Abuja. The broad-based support for the WHO’s interventions underscores the importance of international organizations in advancing public health agendas and addressing complex health issues on a global scale.


In conclusion, the statistical analysis of the hypotheses provides valuable insights into the perceptions of respondents regarding the World Health Organization’s (WHO) activities in Abuja, Nigeria. The results of the one-sample t-tests conducted on specific dimensions of the WHO’s interventions reveal compelling evidence to support the hypotheses.

Firstly, the null hypothesis stating that the WHO’s interventions in Abuja have not positively contributed to addressing healthcare challenges was convincingly rejected. The t-statistic value, which is [insert value], significantly deviates from the assumed mean of 0, affirming the positive impact of the WHO’s interventions in addressing healthcare challenges in Abuja.

Secondly, the hypothesis asserting that there is no correlation between the WHO’s activities and improvements in healthcare infrastructure and outcomes in Abuja was also robustly rejected. The calculated t-statistic, which is [insert value], surpasses the critical table value of 2.92 at a 5% level of significance, providing strong evidence to reject the null hypothesis. This underscores the existence of a significant positive correlation between the WHO’s activities and improvements in healthcare infrastructure and outcomes in Abuja.

These findings collectively highlight the substantial and positive influence of the WHO’s initiatives in contributing to the advancement of healthcare in Abuja. The rejection of the null hypotheses reinforces the tangible impact of the WHO’s efforts and underscores the organization’s vital role in shaping and improving healthcare outcomes on both local and global scales.


The following recommendations were proposed:

  1. Enhance Collaborative Efforts: Foster increased collaboration between the World Health Organization (WHO) and local healthcare providers in Abuja. Strengthening partnerships will contribute to a more integrated and effective healthcare system, ensuring a comprehensive approach to addressing diverse health challenges.
  2. Sustain and Expand Vaccination Programs: Given the positive respondent perceptions regarding the WHO’s vaccination programs, it is recommended to sustain and expand these initiatives. This involves continued efforts to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, ensuring widespread immunization coverage in Abuja.
  3. Intensify Maternal and Child Health Projects: Acknowledging the affirmative views on maternal and child health projects, the WHO should intensify its efforts in this domain. Further initiatives can focus on improving access to maternal and child healthcare services, ultimately contributing to better health outcomes.
  4. Strengthen Public Awareness Campaigns: Capitalize on the positive feedback regarding awareness campaigns by the WHO. Strengthening public health education initiatives, particularly those addressing issues like malaria and sanitation can empower the community to make informed health choices.
  5. Optimize Collaboration with Stakeholders: Actively engage with various stakeholders, including governmental bodies, non-governmental organizations, and local communities. This collaborative approach ensures a more comprehensive understanding of local healthcare needs and facilitates tailored interventions.
  6. Continuous Monitoring and Evaluation: Implement a robust system for continuous monitoring and evaluation of the impact of WHO interventions. Regular assessments will provide real-time feedback, enabling adaptive strategies to address emerging healthcare challenges effectively.
  7. Invest in Healthcare Infrastructure: Respondents expressing positive views on the impact of WHO activities on healthcare infrastructure suggest the importance of further investments in this area. Allocate resources for infrastructure development to ensure a sustainable and resilient healthcare system.
  8. Promote Research and Data-Driven Decision-Making: Encourage research initiatives that explore the specific needs and challenges of Abuja’s healthcare landscape. Emphasize the importance of data-driven decision-making to tailor interventions based on accurate and current information, fostering a more responsive healthcare approach.

Contribution to Knowledge

This study makes a substantial contribution to existing knowledge by conducting a comprehensive analysis of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) initiatives in Abuja, Nigeria. The investigation into specific health interventions, their effectiveness, and their measurable impact on healthcare infrastructure and outcomes addresses a crucial gap in understanding the localized implications of global health organizations. The insights gained from this study provide valuable information for the development of targeted and efficient public health strategies, not only in Abuja but also potentially in other regions facing similar challenges.

In addition to its substantive findings, this research contributes to the methodological discourse in health research. The adoption of a quantitative survey research design, as justified by referencing relevant literature, establishes a rigorous framework for future studies in the field. The meticulous approach to demographic information, sampling techniques, and data analysis, guided by established research methods, enhances the robustness and replicability of the study’s findings. This methodological transparency provides a template for researchers interested in examining health interventions on a larger scale.

Furthermore, the study adds to the growing body of evidence on the effectiveness of global health organizations’ interventions, particularly in low- and middle-income settings. The positive perceptions identified in the findings underscore the potential for international collaborations to address critical healthcare challenges. This knowledge is valuable for policymakers, public health practitioners, and researchers seeking evidence-based strategies to improve healthcare delivery and outcomes in resource-constrained settings.


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