The Appraisal of the Problems and Solutions Confronting Student Teachers on Teaching Practice
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to appraise some of the problems student teachers faced during Teaching Practices and to find possible solutions to the problems so as to make the aim of teaching practice a reality.
The study is also geared towards making the student teacher become aware of what the profession demand and what it takes to be a good teacher and to function properly in the same capacity in a school environs-It is also geared towards making conclusion as to whether the assumption held by different people as regards the problems faced by student teachers and possible solutions are genuine or not genuine.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The independent and dependent variables were examined in this chapter. Thus this chapter gives consideration to the following;
- Teacher education in Nigeria.
- Concept of Teaching Practice
- The structure of Teaching Practice in teacher education programmes in Nigeria.
- Problems associated with Teaching Practice
TEACHER EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
There has been a dismal picture of the challenges and inconsistencies facing teacher education in Nigeria, Most of the teacher education programmes in Nigeria have been described as academically inadequate in their ability to prepare teachers for classroom (Ocho, 1995; Aghenta, 1998; Imogie, 1999). Although, student are usually taught now to plan a lesson and manage a classroom and about the methodology in their various discipline they are not taught how to give an explanation, how to arouse interest, how to ask the right questions, how to react to students responses, how to give a feedback, how to avoid unfair biases in interacting with students, how to hold classroom discussion how to give homework in short, they have not been taught how to teach (Afe, 1991; Ukeje, 1991),
John Dewey, one of the foremost curriculum theorist and philosopher suggested in 1904 in a lecture that formed this treatise on; the relation of theory to practice in education of teachers.
“The teacher, who leaves the professional school with power in managing a class of children, may appear to be superior advantage, the first day, the first week, or even the first year. Such person may seem to know how to teach, but they are not student of teaching unless a teacher is also a » student of teaching, he cannot grow as a teacher” (Dewey 1904, P. 6)
Dan Lortie on his influential books titled; the Real World of the Beginning Teacher, has argued that;
“Unless prospective teachers are given alternative pictures of what teaching.., can be, they are almost bound to teach in the same way their teachers taught them.” (Dan Lortie 1966, P- 10), Thus, the problem of teaching practice is one that needs urgent attention. This is not because of the answer are readily available but that the complexity of the problem and weakness of teaching practice have scarcely been grasped,
Fafunwa (1972) rightly remarked that “the overall problem of preparing the future citizens of Africa who will fully be oriented to their environment cannot be effectively accomplished without the aid of competent teacher”
The success or failure of all the goals depend entirely on the content and objectives of teacher education programme designed for these purpose. Here we ask ourselves a question form the above statement “what purpose does teaching practice set to serve”
The purpose according to Curtis and Andrew is that “it provides opportunities under guidance for the student teacher to developed and evaluate his competencies in the major areas of teacher activities in the public school. * They went on to emphasize that it provides the student teacher with professional knowledge, professional skills and professional judgment.
CONCEPT OP TEACHING PRACTICE
The word “teaching practice has acquired a variety of meanings. Most misleading is the tendency to equate teaching practice with internship. Teaching practice serves a different purpose and is not equitable with internship. Internship period spent in observing the school system in operation and the interns are also involved in school activities, which include the management of classes, observing the administrative system of the school e.t-c. and a report is produced on all the observation and activities undertaken by the intern supervisors are of course assigned to report on the activities of the intern (Balkie, 2002 p. 29).
If Teaching Practice is not internship, what then is teaching practice? Stone and Morris in the classical book titled, “Teaching practice; problems and perspectives” have argued that the term Teaching practice is as anachronistic practice is somewhat outdated. Secondly the term is base on a view of teaching as an apprenticeship system in which a neo phyte attempt to model himself closely upon a master teacher whose duty is to initiate the beginner into the mysteries of his craft. Stone and Morris (1975) argue that there is no basis for this view of teaching practice today; there is neither an established body of subject matter, nor an esoteric set of rules by which such knowledge is transmitted.
Teaching Practice is also an ambiguous concept. It can refer to;
- The practicing of various teaching skills associated with the role of the teacher;
- The total experience of schools acquired by student during their period of attachment,
- The practical as distinct from the theoretical elements of the course.
This chapter discussed the research procedure adopted in this study. The procedure includes;
- Survey Research design
- Population and sampling technique of the study
- Validity and reliability of the study administration of instrument
- Method of data analysis 3.1 Survey Research Design
Survey Research Design
This research made use of the survey research design. This research attempted to find out the problems faced by student teachers and also proffered solutions to the problem.
The item for this research was collected and analyzed from few students considered to be representative of the entire student that took part in the 2006/2007 teaching practice exercise.
Population and Sampling technique of the student.
The population of the study consisted of 100 education students in tertiary institution in Edo State. 300 level students in
College of Education, Ekiadolor and 400 level student of the University of Benin form the population used for this study. The students were selected from different department in the college and university.
PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
This chapter is concerned with the presentation and analyses of data based on the research hypotheses.
Below are the analyses of the data collected by this researcher through the questionnaire.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
`The main purpose of this study is to find out the problem facing student teachers and possible solutions.
Two (2) hypotheses were used for the study and they included that;
- There is no significance difference between pre-service teachers in college of education and that of university of Benin in their appraisal of the problems associated with teaching practice,
- There is no significant difference between pre-service teacher in college of education and that of university of Benin in there appraisal of the solution associated with teaching practice.
To properly ascertain this study, a closed-ended questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was given to 100 students from College of Education and the University of Benin, In analyzing the data collected. Simple percentage was used,
The results obtained from the research hypotheses should that;
- Student teachers are faced with accommodation problem because they are not given opportunity to choose a practicing school of their choice,
- Practicing school do not provide teaching material or aids for the student teacher thereby making teaching difficulty and uninteresting.
- Students do not respect student teacher the way they respect their permanent teacher because most time there is no cordial relationship between the permanent teacher and the teacher trainees.
- Both the student from college of education and university of Benin are faced with the same problem associated with teaching practicing.
- The problem faced by students from college of education and university of Benin during teaching practice can be solve using the same solution.
Based on the findings the following conclusions were reached.
- There is no significant difference between the pre-service teacher in college of education and university of Benin in their appraisal of the problem faced associated with teaching practice.
- There is no significant difference between the pre-service teacher in college of education and university of Benin in their appraisal of the solution associated with teaching practice-
It is also deduced from their responses that teaching practice gives more insight to what they are likely to meet when they will be on the field of teaching.
More also some of the problems encountered by the student during the period of teaching practice such as accommodation problems, poor relationship between them and school staff, the principal and student and the hostile attitude of the supervisor with the student teacher also affect the attitude of student teacher toward teaching practice exercise.
With regard to the findings and conclusions the following recommendations were considered necessary;
- Student should be posted to the school of their choice for teaching practice.
- Teaching practice should be encourage by giving the Student teachers some allowance to maintain themselves and feel comfortable.
- Relevant instructional material should be provided by the school for proper teaching and illustration.
- Student should tji; sent to school that are ready to take them and to make proper arrangement Tor accommodation,
- There should be adequate supervision personnel for teaching practice exercise.
Suggestion for Further Research
The researcher is suggesting me following;
- A detailed research work should be carried out on the problem and solution of teaching practices.
- More institutions should be used when this kind of research is to be carried out so that a better conclusion can be drawn.
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- GABRIEL O.D (1990) Teaching Practice in_ Colleges of Education it . Objectives and Implementation.
- OLAITAN S.O and AGIUSIOBO O. W (1981) Principle of Practice Teaching, John Wiley on New York
- SOLANI, T.T.N (1964) Teacher Training in Nigeria. University Press Ibadan. STINNET F.M (1968) Professional Problem of Teachers. The Macmillan Company, London.
- UREBVU A, O (1984) New Principles and Practices of Education in_ Nigerian, Juland Publishers London U.K.