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The Causes and Effects of Human Trafficking Among Our Women in the Society: A Case Study of Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State

The Causes and Effects of Human Trafficking Among Our Women in the Society A Case Study of Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State

The Causes and Effects of Human Trafficking Among Our Women in the Society: A Case Study of Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State

Chapter One


The purpose of this study include the causes and effect of human trafficking in Nigeria and to proffer a possible recommendations to this problem in OREDOLocal Government Area of Edo State for the people in the society to live a better standard of living in the country, and when there is a solution to this problem, our economy will improve faster or rapidly and create employment for people. For this purpose to be achieved in Egor, the government must be able to enforce laws and provide a suitable solutions to the causes and effect of human trafficking in Nigeria.




Human trafficking started when property was owned in common by all there was no subordinate of man to his fellow man. All men were then equal. Later greedy men acquired immense wealth at the expense of others and assumed the position of master over follows who owned the servant as a chattel or slave, possessing no right of any kind. There are many ways in which a man losses his personal freedom and become servant to a master. One of these ways was the accepted practice by which a king or an important personality received and maintained a number of wards or domestic servants.

The last group of persons reduced to the state of servitude in West African were the slaves in the true sense of the word. Traditionally a free person was acquired and become slave through sale rulers and other wealth and status in the society by buying as many slaves as they could afford to work for them. Then the sole aim of human trafficking remains economic, human trafficking the canker worm that is eating deep into the Nigerian society has become an issue of worry at the global and national level, despite the official and legal abortion of slave trade, this obnoxious trade still thrives in our society today as human trafficking is used here to refer to trade in human persons, that is, a situation where we have buyers and sellers contacting transaction with human as products for the sole purpose of using the purpose of using the purchased goods for the exploitation benefits of this buyers. Human trafficking could be internal or external.

Human trafficking is indeed very ancient. There is ample evidence that right through ancient times, affluent people kept slaves for physical pleasure or manual labour. Over the Atlantic and exported to different parts of the world as bonded labour. Trafficking only occurs in poor countries. But every country in the world is involved in the underground lucrative system some source countries are the former Soviet territories and Nigeria, but there are many more. The most common destinations for victims of human trafficking are Thailand, Italy, Turkey and the U.S, according to a report by the UNODU, human trafficking has become a lucrative business, to Awe (2001) in 1994 out of 120 suspected prostitutes arrested on an Italian express train, arrival at Madrid Airport, and a batch of 77 women were repatriated from Italy in March 2000, while 17 women were deported from Saudi Arabia.

The term human trafficking is defined or described by the United Nations Convention as the recruitment, transportation, transfer harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the treat or use of force or other forms of coercion of abduction of fraud, of deception of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payment or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.

Exploitation shall include at a minimum the exploitation of prostitute of other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or service, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs. Professor D.S.B. Omoregie (1929) defines human trafficking as the movement of persons whether underage or adult from their homes, areas, towns within a country or foreign countries in order to earn money.

Harvey (1932) said human trafficking is a process where individuals are exploited for financial gains by other persons.


There are different types of human trafficking, they are;

  • Prostitution
  • Child labour
  • Slavery
  • Drug addiction

Prostitution: this is as old as man and is simply defined as a process where by a male or female offers himself/herself in order to secure a favour from superior persons in terms of wealth or academic pursuit or material gain. Prostitution is also defined as love entanglement with any client willing to pay for sexual services.

Alhaji Illavbare (1989) said prostitution exist in order to raise the families financial position. Prostitution in the modern society has assumed a more complex dimension, a lot considerate part of the population sees it as a means to earn their livelihood to provide for their dependent families, and to some person it is a short avenue to acquire wealth and some other, a hobby, some tribes or ethnic groups indulge ignorantly in prostitution as a means of entertainment to their visitors. Some people see it as a way to satisfy their curiosity, appetite and sometimes for simple fun.

Child labour: child labour has been described as work performed by children under the age of 15 which damages their physical, mental, social and psychological development. Child labour is related to the era of industrialization, it is prevalent in factories and agro based industries. Children become child labourers when they are performing work that is harmful to their physical or mental health, safely as the rights of the child. Child abuse and intolerable form of child labour include dangerous occupation like mining and manufacturing, trafficking of children for pornographic activities, family economic forms.

Slavery: slavery was defined by Karl Marx as a situation whereby greedy men acquired immense wealth at the expense of others and assumed the position of master over their follows who owned or no wealth. The master owned the servant as a chattel of slave, possessing no right of any kind. On of the way of slavery was pawning by which a ward served a money lender as a security, until he was redeemed on payment of the loan. Slavery used to be voluntary and the slaves were even grateful to their lords for the protection and support for livelihood which such lord provided.




This chapter described the procedures and method adopted by the researcher to find out the causes and effect of human trafficking among our youth in OREDO Local Government Area of Edo state, Benin.


This study was designed to investigate the causes and effects of human trafficking in Nigeria and also to provide a suitable recommendation or solution in order to solve this particular problem. This designed of the study was carryout in OREDOlocal government area of Edo state.


The population of the study consisted of Evbuotubu Secondary School, Asoro Grammar School, and also market woman civil servants and profession in OREDOL.G.A.



This chapter present the analysis of data collected through the questionnaire administered for the purpose of the study. The primary data analysis method was used in the presentations with the simple percentage in table.

Research Question 1

Is poverty and economic constraint a major causes of human trafficking?




The purpose of this scientific research is to find out the causes and effects of human trafficking in Nigeria and suggest recommendation to help in solving this particular problem.

Ironically, the strength of the Nigeria trafficking networks lies in the element of reporcity between traffickers and victims.

The major causes of human trafficking are poverty. Poverty will always remain the root causes for human to be lured into prostitution, child labour etc. other cause are unemployment, lack of acquisition of meaningful skills, lack of publicity, high level of corruptions, belief that  education is a waste of time because of the high rate of unemployment amongst graduates, high demand for cheap labour overseas.

There are also effect that result from human trafficking which are domestic violence, sexual harassment, sexual assault, loss of lives, and poor national image, this are the effect that result from human trafficking.


This study was done to ascertain or give information to people to know about the problems and the effects of human trafficking such as poverty, unemployment, lack of publicity, high level of corruptions etc and also the effect that results from  human trafficking such as poor national image, prostitution etc.

In this case of study, the society must be aware about the causes, effects that result from human trafficking and also know the recommendation or solution of these problems.


The government should give financial and personal aid to viable NGOs to rehabilitate not only victims of trafficking but also those that are school dropout.

The government should make sure students in tertiary institution of higher learning have an irreplaceable role to play in the campaign because student of today are the leaders and parent of tomorrow. The establishment of chapter of WOTCLET on campuses of tertiary institution is the right step in the right direction and should serve as the awareness ground of the evils of these clandestine activities.

The federal government must ensure free education at all levels in the country, since functional education impact skill that could be deployed in the quest for economical survival; its attainment remains improvement for individual and societal well being. This must be promoted in the task of preventing the menace of human trafficking. There should be aggressive campaign against human trafficking and strict sanctions should be made against the people that are involved and also those that aiding them.

The government should provide job opportunities for the teaming youths because idle minds are the devils workshop. There should be proper inclusive of human trafficking into the school curriculum.


  • Amnesty international (2004); Enhancing the Protection of the Right of Trafficking
  • Apap, J. (2003) Protection Schemes for Victim of trafficking.
  •   Arnold, J. andf Doni, C. (2002); Auti Trafficking Aassessment
  •  Aronowitz, A., (2003); Coalition Against Trafficking of Human Being.
  • Asem, (2001) Asem Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Person Especially Women and Children.
  • Bindman J, and Doezema J. (1997); Redefining Prostitution as sex work on the international Agenda.
  • Brunovskis A. and Tydlum G (2004): crossing the Border An Empirical study of Transnational Prostitution and Trafficking in Human Beings, Oslo, Norway.
  • Guardian 15th November 2009 page 14
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