Human Resource Management Project Topics

The Effect of Human Relation Practices on Employee Performance: a Case Study of United Bank for Africa (Uba)

The Effect of Human Relation Practices on Employee Performance a Case Study of United Bank for Africa(Uba)

The Effect of Human Relation Practices on Employee Performance: a Case Study of United Bank for Africa (Uba)


Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of this study, within the context of UBA, are as follows:

  1. To evaluate the effectiveness of communication practices within UBA and their influence on employee performance.
  2. To assess the leadership styles adopted by UBA and their impact on employee productivity.
  3. To analyze the organizational culture at UBA and its relationship with employee job satisfaction.



Conceptual Review

Human Relations Practices

Human Relations Practices (HRP) encompass a range of strategies and initiatives implemented by organizations to manage and enhance relationships between employees. Defined by Akpa, Akinlabi, and Magaji (2019), these practices involve the systematic application of communication, leadership, and cultural approaches to foster a positive and productive work environment.

Human Relations Practices involve a multifaceted approach to managing interpersonal relationships within an organization. At its core, HRP is about creating an organizational culture that prioritizes effective communication, leadership development, and the overall well-being of employees. Communication practices, as highlighted by Wege, Ngige, and Dieli (2019), are a crucial component of HRP. This includes formal channels, feedback mechanisms, and team collaboration strategies that facilitate open and transparent communication within the organization. Leadership styles, as explored by Olaoye and Afolalu (2020), form another vital aspect of HRP. The various leadership approaches within an organization, such as transformational, transactional, or participative leadership, contribute to shaping the employee experience. Additionally, organizational culture, as studied by Islam, Sarker, and Islam (2018), constitutes a significant component of HRP. This involves the shared values, beliefs, and behavioural norms that influence how employees interact within the organization.

The importance of Human Relations Practices in the organizational context cannot be overstated. Within the banking industry, where talent is a critical asset, effective HRP plays a pivotal role in attracting, retaining, and maximizing the potential of employees. The banking sector is marked by constant innovation and technological advancements, making it imperative for organizations like UBA to foster a positive work environment. The study by Awoyemi and Akinfolarin (2018) on the impact of HRM practices on sustainability development emphasizes the role of HRP in creating an organizational culture that supports long-term growth and success.

Communication practices within HRP contribute to organizational effectiveness by ensuring that information flows seamlessly across different levels and departments. Effective communication, as identified by Miranda and Fernando (2020), fosters a sense of transparency, trust, and alignment with organizational objectives. This is particularly crucial in the banking sector, where timely and accurate information is vital for decision-making and maintaining a competitive edge.

Leadership styles, a key component of HRP, directly impact employee motivation and performance. The study by Sajjad (2017) on the impact of HRM on organizational performance highlights the significance of leadership in influencing employee commitment and engagement. Transformational leadership, for example, has been associated with higher levels of employee motivation and innovative thinking, which are critical in a rapidly evolving industry like banking.

Organizational culture, another integral component of HRP, contributes to the overall employee experience. The study by Al-Abbadi (2018) on the impact of HRM practices on organizational commitment underscores the role of a positive and inclusive organizational culture in fostering commitment among employees. In a diverse and dynamic industry like banking, a strong organizational culture helps create a sense of belonging and shared values.





The methodology adopted for this research was driven by the need to rigorously investigate the impact of human relations practices on employee performance in the United Bank for Africa (UBA). Drawing on the works of Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill (2019) and Anderson, Fontinha, and Robson (2020), this chapter outlines the research design, population, sampling techniques, data collection methods, data analysis procedures, and ethical considerations that guided the study.

Research Design

The research design played a pivotal role in shaping the investigation’s structure and guiding its overall approach. In this study, a quantitative survey research design was deemed the most appropriate, aligning with the work of Saunders et al. (2019). This design was chosen for its capacity to efficiently collect data from a large and diverse population, a crucial aspect given the multinational nature of the bank under examination (Saunders et al., 2019). The use of a quantitative survey design facilitated the systematic exploration of the intricate relationships between human relations practices and employee performance within the unique context of a multinational institution like UBA.

The justification for employing a quantitative survey research design is grounded in its ability to capture numerical data on a broad spectrum of variables pertinent to human relations practices and employee performance. Saunders et al. (2019) highlight that this approach allows for the collection of quantifiable data, offering a structured and standardized means of gathering information. This design not only facilitates the efficient examination of a wide array of factors but also enables the application of advanced statistical analyses. Utilizing tools such as SPSS, as suggested by Saunders et al. (2019), enhances the researcher’s capability to conduct rigorous hypothesis testing and uncover patterns and trends within the dataset. Consequently, the quantitative survey research design was instrumental in providing a solid foundation for the empirical investigation of the relationships under scrutiny in this study.

Population of the Study

The selection of the target population, encompassing 1200 respondents from diverse departments and hierarchical levels within UBA, was a strategic decision with justification rooted in the pursuit of a comprehensive and representative dataset. This sizable sample size was considered fitting to ensure a diverse set of perspectives, contributing to the richness and depth of the study’s findings (Beiske, 2017). As Beiske (2017) highlights, a larger sample size enhances the generalizability of research findings, making them more applicable to the broader population.

The decision to include participants from various departments and roles within the bank aligns with the research strategy to capture a holistic understanding of the subject matter. This approach allows for the exploration of how human relations practices influence different facets of employee performance across the multifaceted structure of UBA. It ensures that the study considers the diversity of experiences and perspectives within the organization, contributing to a more nuanced and thorough analysis of the impact of human relations practices (Beiske, 2017).

In essence, the choice of a target population of 1200 respondents is not merely a statistical consideration but a deliberate effort to create a sample that is both representative and diverse, aligning with the complexity of the organizational context within a multinational bank like UBA.



Data Presentation

The data from Table 4.1 reveal that 86.7% of the distributed questionnaires were returned and completed by the participants. This high response rate is indicative of a substantial level of engagement from the respondents, suggesting a genuine interest in the research topic. The willingness of 104 participants to actively contribute their perspectives through completed questionnaires enhances the reliability of the collected data and signifies the success of the data collection process.

On the other hand, 13.3% of the questionnaires were not returned or completed, introducing a potential source of bias. While the majority of participants participated in the study, understanding the reasons behind non-completion is crucial. Factors such as time constraints or disinterest may have contributed to the non-response, highlighting a limitation in the study. Future research endeavors could explore strategies to minimize non-response rates and improve overall participation.



Summary of Findings

The study conducted a comprehensive exploration of various facets related to human relations practices within UBA, focusing on communication practices, leadership styles, and organizational culture, and their impact on employee performance and job satisfaction. The findings derived from the data analysis provide valuable insights into the organizational dynamics of UBA and shed light on the perceptions and experiences of its employees. The following is a general summary of key findings across different aspects of the study.

Communication Practices: In examining communication practices (Tables 4.7 to 4.10), the majority of respondents expressed agreement that UBA’s communication practices contribute positively to their understanding of organizational goals and objectives, facilitate open and transparent dialogue, enhance their understanding of roles and responsibilities, and impact team collaboration. These findings underscore the significance of effective communication in fostering a cohesive and collaborative work environment.

Leadership Styles: Tables 4.11 to 4.14 focused on leadership styles within UBA. The results indicate that respondents generally perceive the leadership in UBA as encouraging participative decision-making, demonstrating a clear vision for the organization, fostering a supportive and inclusive work environment, and encouraging autonomy and empowerment. These positive perceptions suggest that UBA’s leadership is viewed as effective in promoting a positive organizational culture that values collaboration, clarity, support, and employee empowerment.

Organizational Culture: Tables 4.15 to 4.18 delved into the organizational culture at UBA. The findings reveal that employees feel a strong sense of belonging, perceive a positive impact of the organizational culture on work-life balance and job satisfaction, believe in the alignment of organizational values with personal values, and acknowledge the support for continuous learning and professional development. These results collectively portray a favorable view of UBA’s organizational culture, indicating that it plays a crucial role in shaping a positive and conducive work environment.

One-Sample t-test: The application of a one-sample t-test (Table 4.19) aimed to assess the significance of the impact of communication practices, leadership styles, and organizational culture. The results indicate that employees, on average, perceive a significant positive impact of communication practices and organizational culture on employee performance. However, the impact of different leadership styles on employee productivity was not significantly varied. These statistical findings provide quantitative support to the qualitative insights gathered from the survey responses.

Demographic Distribution: Tables 4.2 to 4.6 present the demographic distribution of respondents. Noteworthy patterns include a diverse age group representation, a predominantly male workforce, a significant proportion of employees with a Master’s degree, and a majority with more than 10 years of experience. Understanding the demographic profile is essential for contextualizing the study’s findings and recognizing the diversity within the organization.

In conclusion, the study’s findings collectively suggest a positive organizational climate within UBA, characterized by effective communication, leadership that fosters collaboration and empowerment, and an organizational culture that promotes employee well-being, job satisfaction, and continuous learning. These insights can guide UBA’s management in further enhancing human relations practices to ensure sustained positive outcomes for both the organization and its employees.


The hypotheses tested in this study provided valuable insights into the pivotal aspects of communication practices, leadership styles, and organizational culture within UBA. The findings strongly indicate that effective communication practices significantly impact employee performance, emphasizing the importance of clear and transparent communication in fostering organizational success. Furthermore, the assessment of different leadership styles did not reveal significant variations in their effects on employee productivity, suggesting a uniform impact across styles within UBA. This highlights the need for a deeper exploration of leadership approaches to identify potential areas for enhancement.

The investigation into the organizational culture at UBA demonstrated a significant relationship between the organizational culture and employee job satisfaction, emphasizing the influential role of the workplace environment on employee contentment. Despite the findings, it’s important to note the nuanced and multifaceted nature of human relations within an organization like UBA. While certain aspects exhibited strong correlations, others might require further probing or contextual considerations. Overall, these findings underscore the critical role that effective communication, consistent organizational culture, and nuanced leadership play in shaping employee experiences and organizational dynamics within UBA.


The following recommendations were proposed for this study:

Enhancement of Communication Training Programs: UBA should consider investing in comprehensive communication training programs for its employees at all levels. These programs should emphasize not only the importance of effective communication but also provide practical skills for fostering open dialogue and transparent communication channels. This investment could contribute to improved communication practices and subsequently enhance overall employee performance.

Leadership Development Workshops: The study suggests a uniform impact of various leadership styles on employee productivity within UBA. However, to further optimize leadership effectiveness, the organization should conduct leadership development workshops. These workshops can provide leaders with insights into adaptive leadership, enabling them to tailor their styles to specific situations and individuals, ultimately fostering a more productive and motivated workforce.

Cultivating a Positive Organizational Culture: Given the strong correlation between organizational culture and employee job satisfaction, UBA should actively cultivate a positive and inclusive culture. This may involve reinforcing values that align with employee expectations, promoting diversity and inclusion, and creating initiatives that support work-life balance. A positive organizational culture can contribute to increased job satisfaction and a more engaged workforce.

Regular Employee Feedback Mechanisms: Establishing regular feedback mechanisms is crucial for understanding employees’ perceptions of communication, leadership, and organizational culture. UBA should implement anonymous surveys or feedback sessions to allow employees to express their opinions openly. This continuous feedback loop can provide valuable insights for ongoing improvement efforts.

Flexibility in Leadership Approaches: While the study did not find significant variations in the impact of different leadership styles, UBA should encourage leaders to adopt flexible approaches based on the unique needs of their teams. This flexibility can involve situational leadership, where leaders adjust their styles according to the specific challenges and dynamics of the team.

Continuous Monitoring and Adaptation: The organizational landscape is dynamic, and what works today may need adjustments tomorrow. UBA should establish systems for continuous monitoring of communication practices, leadership effectiveness, and organizational culture. This ongoing evaluation will enable the organization to adapt proactively to changing circumstances, ensuring sustained employee satisfaction and performance.

Contribution to Knowledge

This research significantly contributes to the existing body of knowledge by offering insights into the intricate dynamics of human relations practices within a multinational banking setting, using UBA as a case study. The findings shed light on the nuanced relationships between communication practices, leadership styles, organizational culture, and employee performance. The exploration of these interconnections provides a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing employee satisfaction and productivity within the context of a large financial institution.

Moreover, this study extends the literature on communication practices by empirically assessing their impact on employee performance. The detailed analysis of communication channels, breakdowns, and their repercussions on collaboration and overall performance contributes a nuanced perspective to the field. The findings emphasize the importance of effective communication in fostering a conducive work environment and mitigating potential obstacles that may arise due to communication breakdowns.

The research also enriches the literature on leadership styles by investigating their correlation with employee productivity. By exploring the leadership landscape within UBA, the study offers valuable insights into the prevalent leadership styles and their varying impacts on workforce efficiency. This contributes to the broader discourse on leadership effectiveness, particularly within the dynamic and complex environment of multinational banks.

Furthermore, the examination of organizational culture and its connection to employee job satisfaction adds depth to the literature on corporate culture. The study not only defines the key components of UBA’s organizational culture but also establishes a clear link between these cultural aspects and employee satisfaction. This contribution enhances our understanding of how organizational culture can be strategically managed to foster a positive work environment and elevate job satisfaction among employees in the banking sector. Top of Form

Limitations of the Study

Despite the valuable insights gained from this research, it is essential to acknowledge its limitations. One significant limitation lies in the generalizability of the findings. The study focused exclusively on UBA, a multinational bank with specific organizational characteristics and cultural nuances. Therefore, caution should be exercised when applying these findings to other organizations, especially those in different industries or geographical locations. The unique context of UBA may influence the observed relationships between human relations practices and employee performance, and variations in organizational structures and cultures could yield different results in diverse settings.

Another limitation pertains to the reliance on self-reported data through the questionnaire. While this method is commonly employed in organizational research, it introduces the potential for response bias. Participants may provide responses that align with perceived expectations or exhibit social desirability bias, affecting the accuracy of the reported data. Additionally, self-reported data may not always reflect the actual behaviors or experiences of employees. Future studies could consider complementing survey data with objective measures or incorporating qualitative methods to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the complex interactions between human relations practices and employee performance.

Suggestions for Further Studies

This study lays the foundation for future research endeavors within the realm of human relations practices and their impact on employee performance. One avenue for further investigation could involve a comparative analysis across diverse industries. While this study delved into the banking sector, exploring how human relations practices differ or converge in sectors like technology, healthcare, or manufacturing could provide valuable insights. Examining the contextual variations in the application and effectiveness of these practices would contribute to a more nuanced understanding of their impact on employee performance.

Furthermore, future research could explore the mediating and moderating factors that may influence the relationship between human relations practices and employee performance. Factors such as organizational size, leadership competencies, and industry dynamics could play crucial roles in shaping the observed outcomes. Investigating these variables could provide a more comprehensive picture and offer practical implications for organizations aiming to enhance employee performance through targeted human relations strategies.

Additionally, longitudinal studies could be conducted to assess the sustainability and long-term effects of human relations practices on employee performance. Tracking the evolution of these practices over time and their corresponding impact on employee outcomes would contribute to a dynamic understanding of the subject. Longitudinal studies could also help identify potential causal relationships and provide a more robust foundation for strategic decision-making in organizational management.


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