Education Project Topics

The Effect of ICT on Teachers’ Mode of Teaching and Students’ Performance

The Effect of ICT on Teachers’ Mode of Teaching and Students’ Performance

The Effect of ICT on Teachers’ Mode of Teaching and Students’ Performance

Chapter One

 Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of ICT on teachers’ mode of teaching and students’ performance.

  1. To determine the extent of accessibility of computers to teachers and students in secondary schools in Abuja.
  2. To determine the level of teachers’ and students’ expertise in ICT integration in teaching and learning process in Abuja.
  3. To determine the ways in which ICT is integrated in teaching and learning process by teachers and students.
  4. To determine the extent of implementation of the Ministry of Education policy on  ICT integration in secondary schools in Abuja.




This section reviews literature related to the study on ICT integration in the teaching and learning process in secondary school education. The review is divided into the following: the concept of ICT integration in education; internet connectivity and ICT equipment in schools; teacher professional development in ICT; digital curriculum and content for schools and policy framework for ICT integration in education. The section ends with the discussion on theoretical framework and conceptual framework upon which the study was based.

Concept of ICT Integration in Education

Information Communication Technology (ICT) is basically a tool; it can be a hardware, a software or both. Jackson (2002) advises that teachers should not replace what they teach, but see ICT as a tool just like a calculator, a pen or chalkboard that help them  to teach and students to learn. Hodgkison (2006) and Duplessis (2010) note three types of ICT integration present in schools; the first being, learning about computers without any link to classroom practice. The second is full integration with traditional goals whereby computer is just used as a transmitter of knowledge resulting to just learning “from” the computer and  the third is full integration with constructivist learning space and context, implying that computers are taken as mediational or transformational tools resulting to learning   “with” or “through” using computers. An analysis of South African Institute of Distance Education (SAIDE) (2003) suggests that the generative mode integration is not the norm in most Sub-Saharan African schools.

Muchiri (2008) (citing Poole 1998) indicate that educators in United States of America (USA) are able to put computers to good use in preparing teaching and learning materials. They are able to produce syllabi, schedules and classroom materials professionally and more efficiently using computers. By use of productivity tools such as word processors, database management software, communication systems and graphic tools educators are able to duplicate excellence in managing the process of teaching and learning. Generally, educators have found ICT to be a crucial tool for supporting drills and practice in previously taught skills and concepts in class. Also opportunities for networking and collaborative learning indicate that several principles and theories which promote learner centered constructivist learning can be more easily integrated in teaching. Furthermore, the internet connectivity makes it possible for educational resources to be accessed and exchanged with relative ease.

Nigerian experience on ICT integration has been low despite the government and Ministry of Education’s efforts to support ICT integration initiatives. Ndiku, (2003) conducted a research on the experience of managers and computer teachers in eight schools in Uasin Gishu with a focus on problem encountered in implementing ICT projects. The research identified the following as the most significant factors:  insufficient number of computers and peripheral devices, teacher lack of adequacy in ICT knowledge; inadequate software for instruction and inadequate technical assistance .The research by Ndiku focused on problems encountered in ICT implementation but did not capture the extent of ICT usage in teaching and learning activities.

Internet Connectivity and ICT Equipments in schools.

Electronic learning in education is the wholesome integration of modern telecommunication equipment and ICT resources in the teaching and learning process and it can be online (synchronous) or offline  (asynchronous) (Garrison , Anderson 2003 and Allen 2003)

An important aspect of e- learning therefore is the utilization of the internet in education .Tracy (1995) defines the internet as the international network of communication in which computers in wide area network (WAN) communicate with each other. Most of the available options for effective use of ICT in support of education are much more powerful when the activity is linked in a communication network that permits access to email ,web browsing ,file transfers through downloading and uploading as well as other communications .Brassford,  Brown and cocking (1999) indicate that  High School students in the  United States of America(USA) use the internet to enhance their educational experience in a variety of ways .These include opportunity for collaborative learning environment where students actively construct their knowledge with online peers and teachers through message boards, chat rooms  and emails creating an arena where different discourse and leaning styles can comfortably co-exist. Students also benefit from lectures and presentations in form of video conferencing and web cast from dispersed teachers and experts .Such learning opportunities can only be possible if there is efficient internet connectivity in schools. Government of Nigeria (2006) quoting Educational Management Information Systems (EMIS) survey (2003/2004) indicates that 70% of secondary schools and much larger population of primary schools require functional internet connectivity. The study also establishes that about 90% of secondary schools need to establish Local Area Network to improve sharing of learning resources. Aydin and Tasci (2005) indicate that secondary schools ought to ensure internet connectivity is in place as it forms an important indicator of e-readiness for ICT integration.

The other major ICT infrastructure include multimedia computers and related peripherals .The Nigeria National ICT strategy for education and training, (2006) indicate that with respect to great concern about digital divide, access to ICT facilities is one major challenge in Africa and Nigeria is not an exception. While ratios of less than 15 students to 1 computer are the norm in most developed countries, the ratio in Africa stands at 150 students to 1 computer. This ratio is even wider in disadvantaged regions and areas. Cuban (2001) indicate that the number of student per computer ratio is a common and important metric to judge public school response to massive technological change of the last quarter century. The lower the student to computer ratio, the better as a computer is an individual device most useful for one person at a time.





The section covers research methodology used in this study.  It is organized under the following sub-headings: research design, target population, sample size and sampling procedure, research instrument, instrument validity, instrument reliability, data collection procedure and data analysis

Research Design

A research design is the structure of research. It holds all the elements in a research project together. It shows how all the major parts of the research project work together to try to address the central research question Kombo and Tromp, (2006). The study adopted a descriptive survey design.  Kombo, (2006) defines descriptive survey as a method of collecting information by administering a questionnaire to a sample of individuals in order to secure evidence concerning all existing situations, and comparing the present conditions for the next cause of action. Descriptive survey was suitable since this study sought to determine the effect of ICT on teachers’ mode of teaching and students’ performance.

Target population

The target population was 34 secondary schools in Abuja. The target population is 34 principals, 4760 students and 680 teachers from all the 34 schools in the area.  (School statistics return DEO’s office Abuja July 2020)




This chapter presents the results of data collected from the field. The findings have been presented with respect to each of the specific research questions that guided the study.  

Questionnaire return rate  

A total of 634 questionnaires were administered to 355 students in form 3 and form 4, 245 teachers and 34 principals. Table 4.1 summarizes the questionnaire return rate.





This chapter presents summary of the study, research findings, conclusions drawn and the recommendations for the study and suggestions for further research

 Summary of the study  

The purpose of the study was to find the effect of ICT on teachers’ mode of teaching and students’ performance in Abuja. The objectives of the study were:-  To determine the extent of accessibility of computers to teachers and students , to determine the level of teachers’ and students’ expertise in ICT integration , to determine the ways in which ICT is integrated in teaching and learning process and  to determine the level of implementation of the Ministry of Education policy on  ICT integration . Literature reviewed on ICT integration  laid the background for the study. The main data collection method used was questionnaire administered to teachers, principals and students  in form 3 and  form 4 . An observation checklist was used as a confirmatory tool

The study employed descriptive survey design. 355 students, 245 teachers  were sampled for the study while all 34 principals in all the 34 secondary schools in Abuja, were purposively included  for the study. Research instruments were appraised by my supervisor to enhance   validity. Test- retest method was used to determine instrument reliability where two schools were sampled .The coefficient of reliability of the instrument were 0.93,0.96 and 0.82 for the principals questionnaire ,teachers  and students respectively the  responses from the questionnaires were included in the main study.  Data collected from the respondents was both quantitative and qualitative in nature. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies   and percentage while qualitative data for open ended questions was coded and transcribed per research question item. The data was analyzed and summarized to identify the main research finding and there after conclusions and recommendations were made

 Summary of research findings

The summary of the research findings has been presented as per research objectives in the study.

Extent of accessibility to computers and related peripherals

The study established that most schools in Abuja were equipped to some extent with computer and  related peripherals as all schools were connected to electricity and 54.8% of the schools had installed a standby generator, most of the schools 74.2% had at least one computer laboratory  and 54.8 % of the schools  had installed 20 or more computers accessible to students. The computer student ratio (CSR) for secondary school in Abuja stood at 22 students per 1 computer (22:1).The study also established that  the average  number of computers  per school was 20.03 with standard deviation of 16.91. In regard to internet connectivity, 51.6% of schools were connected to the internet. Basic ICT tools were widely available in most schools, including printers laptops, modems and LCD projectors. In almost all schools apart from printers and modems the school owned only one of each item.

Level of expertise in ICT integration  

A majority of all the school community (teachers, students and principals) reported to have received some ICT training. It was further established that most teachers and principals had ICT literacy training of between 1-2 weeks duration .however, when tested on their skills to operate with various applications most teachers and students alike demonstrated low level of confidence in areas like using access and excel, technology management and file management indicating that there is still capacity building gaps that should be addressed.

Ways in which teachers and students integrate ICT in teaching and learning process  

The study revealed that  60% of teachers in Abuja do not use the internet or computers  to prepare learning materials .Further, 88.1% of the teachers who use computers or the internet spend less than 5 hours per week in using the internet or computer for teaching and learning purpose. This indicates that most teachers spend most of their time using tradition methods  like text books, chalkboards, and handwritten notes as opposed to technology enhanced methods.

The majority of the students had no access to computers during their learning while most of those accessing the computers for learning purposes spend less than 2 hours per week. This clearly indicates that schools in Abuja are yet to fully tap on the vast opportunities for learning using ICT. On regards to intensity or frequency in which teachers made use of ICT in performing basic teaching and learning roles, it emerged  that the  majority of teachers had never used ICT in performance of the following task;. Preparing records of work ,using digitalized notes and lessons presentation in class using projectors for the students, most indicated to have used ICT for sometimes in playing games 43.2% and for watching DVD and VCD on educational issues but most had never used ICT for finding information via internet, communication or networking with them or using specific subject software for learning purposes.

Indeed when asked to rate themselves in terms of utilizing ICT in their learning vis a vis traditional methods of text books and handwritten notes, cumulatively 84.9%  rated themselves at a percentage of below 50% implying that most students felt they were more traditional users of learning methods than technology users.

Level of implementation of ICT integration policy  

Most ICT integration objectives have only been implemented partially. The main objective of the policy was to increase ICT integration in teaching and learning which is still very low in the Area. The implementation of ICT integration in education is faced by various challenges including inadequate relevant e-content, insufficient teachers time, insufficient number of computers and lack of internet connection.  These challenges need to be addressed.


From the research findings it is clear that schools in Abuja had installed computers and related peripherals. However they were not adequate for full ICT integration in the teaching and learning process due to the fact that in most schools some ICT equipments were very few for instance desktop and  laptops computers and LCD projectors. The majority of teachers and students alike reported to have had some form of ICT training however, they demonstrated low level of confidence in performance of several skills. Generally there is low extent of ICT integration by both teachers and students and the implementation of ICT integration policy was hampered by various challenges that need to be addressed.

 Recommendations of the study  

The following are the recommendations of the study:-

  1. School authorities need to create more facilitation for more ICT integration not only in the school but also in the classrooms including ensuring that all the classes have appropriate infrastructure like sockets for ICT equipments as well as replacing blackboards with whiteboard or smart boards so as to reduce dusty classrooms and improver projection of the work from the computer
  2. Teacher’s training colleges and universities should not only incorporate and strengthen ICT integration training in their teacher education programs but should also ensure that such training are based on equipping the student teachers with skills on actual integration of ICT in their respective disciplines.
  3. Head teachers, policy makers and other education stakeholders in Abuja should develop strategies concerning increasing the use of ICT in teaching and learning through addressing the various challenges identified that are inhibiting full implementation of ICT integration
  4. There is still need for more intensified government as well as private sector support  to secondary school towards acquisition of  and maintenance of ICT equipments and facilities especially multimedia computers and broadband internet,
  5. There is also need for a curricula that is not reliant on text book and course coverage but one that allow room for deep enquiry which is supported by ICT as well as need to avail more relevant digital content for use in secondary schools

Suggestion for further research  

The following are the suggestions for further research:

  1. Similar study should be done in other regions for comparison purposes  and in particular enable a clear assessment of e-readiness of secondary schools in Nigeria
  2. Further research be undertaken on new pedagogical models that involve technology use  and the  conditions under which teachers and students are motivated to adopt technology in teaching and learning.
  3. Evidence based study is necessary to establish the real impact of ICT integration in education especially in relation to improvement in learning and performance in education.


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  • Ayere A, Odera  and Agak J. 2010 E-learning in secondary schools in Nigeria: a case of NEPAD E-Schools. Education Research and Reviews Vol 5 (pp 216-223) http//
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  • Best and Kahn (2005) Research in Education  University of Illinois, Chicago.
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  • Cuban (2001) Oversold and under used computers in the classroom  London,Havard University Press.
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