The Effect of Inadequate Human Resource on the Performance of Government Establishments
OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
Deplorably however, most of these objectives listed above have not been achieved due to human problems facing the sector. Therefore the objective of this study includes;
- To determine the effects of work motivation and compensation on the productivity of public sector
- To determine the effects of Ethics and Values on the productivity of public
- To examine the effects of work attitude of workers on the productivity of public sector
- To examine the effects of recruitment and selection process of workers on productivity of public sector organization.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter review previous research works which have been done on the topic “the effect of inadequate human resource on the performance of government establishments”.
This review is subdivided into:
Concept of Public Sector, Nigeria Public Sector, Brief History of Nigeria Public Sector, Characteristics and Classification of Public Sector, Human Resource Management in Public Sector, Impact of HRM on Productivity in Public Sector, Challenges of Human Resource Management in Public Sector
CONCEPT OF PUBLIC SECTOR
Public Sector Organization can be defined as an organization that is set up as a corporate body and as part of the governmental apparatus for an entrepreneurial or entrepreneurial-like objective (Longman Dictionary). Public Sector Organization is organization which emerged as a result of government acting in the capacity of an entrepreneur (Obikeze and Anthony 2004:248).
Public Sector Organization (also known as public corporation) is defined by Dimock and Dimock 1970:69 as publicly-owned enterprise that has been chartered under federal, state or local government law for a particular business or financial purpose. According to Pfiffner (1964:40) “A corporation is a body framed for the purpose of enabling a number of persons to act as single person.”
Public Sector Organization essentially has the features of several individuals who act as one. The Sector Organization thus is viewed as an artificial person who is authorized by law to carry, on particular activities and functions. It is described as a corporate body created by the legislature with defined powers and functions and independently having a clear-cut jurisdiction over a specified area or over a particular type of commercial activity.
Public Sector Organization is part of government apparatus and three implications are hereby highlighted. First, a public sector organization, by virtue of its intricate relationship with government, is an instrument of public policy and its primary mission is in connection with governmental objectives and programmes. It is therefore naturally under governmental control. Second, a public sector organization, by its nature, mostly manages public resources, especially public money and this means that attention must be paid to mechanisms for enforcing accountability.
Third, the combination of financial and economic objectives with social and political aims invariably makes it difficult to devise appropriate performance measurement instrument.
The Public Sector, sometimes referred to as the state sector, is a part of the state that deals with the production, delivery and allocation of services by and for the government or its citizens, whether national, regional or local/municipal.
This chapter is aimed at identifying the various methods applied in collecting data for this research work. It is organized under the following sub-headings: Research design, Area of Study, Data Source, Population of Study, Sample and Sampling techniques, Data Collection instrument, Validation of Instrument, Administration of data, and Method of data analysis.
In defining design, odo(1992:43), stated that designing implies out lining the name of equipment and other materials the research intends using, applying some to successfully execute the practical aspect of the research study.
According to kinnear(1989:133) “a research design is the basic plan which guides the data collection and analysis phases of a research project. It is the framework which specifies the type of information to be collected and source of data collection procedure.
A descriptive survey method was used for this study. It is important to determine the method and procedure adopted in this research report since it gives the reader background information on how to evaluate the findings and conclusion.
AREA OF STUDY
The area covered by the investigation is Power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) Enugu Branch, Enugu State.
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSES OF DATA
PRESENTATION OF DATA
This study made use of questionnaires. In this chapter, the data collected from the respondents regarding the basic issues involved in the research work are presented and analyzed.
A total of two hundred and fifty (250) questionnaires were disturbed out of which one hundred and ninety (190) were duly completed and returned, thus giving a response rate of 76%. For a study of this nature, such a percentage is very high thereby indicating the willingness of the respondents to co-operate.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This chapter gives details of the research findings, conclusion and recommendations of what have been discussed right from the beginning of this research work.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
The information given under this sub-heading reflects the researcher’s findings and subsequent conclusion regarding the effect of inadequate human resource on the performance of government establishments as a basic for investigating the methodology adopted in the study of PHCN. These findings were gotten from the tested hypotheses, interviews as well as from past records. The findings are discussed below.
This objective determined staff’s opinion concerning the inadequate work motivation and compensation of workers and how it affects productivity in public sector organization
70 out of 190 respondents (ie 36.8%) said that because the workers are not happy about the situation. Also, 56 out of 190 respondents said that because the staffs no longer work. However, 40 out of 190 respondents (ie 21.1%) said that the first and second reason above affects the management of organization. But 24 out of 190 (ie 12.6%) were not in support of the above views.
There is evidence to prove that work motivation and compensation contributes to the productivity of public sector. This is because majority of the respondents indicated that workers are not happy about the situation and as a result no longer work hard. The above outcome is in harmony with what was seen in our literature review.
Specifically, we define compensation as what employees receive in exchange for their contribution to the organization. When managed properly, it helps the organization achieve its objectives and obtain, maintain, and retain a productive workforce.
This objective determined staff’s opinion concerning Ethics and Values contribution to poor productivity of public sector. 50 out of 190 respondents (ie 26.3%) said that the maintaining of a satisfied work standards and service delivery is reduced and this leads to poor production.
Also, 50 out of 190 respondents said that the set goals of the organization are not met which affects the management efficiency
However, 50 out of 190 respondents (ie 26.3%) said that the first and second reason above affects the management of organization. But 40 out of 190 (ie 21.1%) were not in support of the above views.
It could be inferred that the management should improve the Ethics and Values of their staffs in order to achieve the set goal of their organization. This confirmed the view of public service ethics as the traditional value of the public service, which emphasizes equity, probity, integrity, moral conduct and political neutrality.
This objective determined staff’s opinion concerning the relationship between poor work attitude by workers and how it affects productivity.
30 out of 190 respondents (ie 15.8%) said Yes, because the workers will have no job satisfaction and involvement which will be affect the productivity of the organization. Also, 58 out of 190 respondents said that because the workers will lack the organizational commitment and its set goals.
However, 80 out of 190 respondents (ie 42.1%) said that the first and second reason above affects the productivity of organization. But 22 out of 190 (ie 11.6%) were not in support of the above views.
The finding supports work attitude as stated by Robbins and Judge (2007:74) as an evaluative statement either favourable or unfavorable, which reflects how one feels about something like people, objects or event.
There is evidence to show recruitment and selection process of workers affects the productivity of public sector organization
This is because majority of the respondents indicated that they were employed through the practice of Ima Mmadu. The above outcome is in harmony with what was seen in our literature review.
Fatiregun (1992:131) defines both recruitment and selection as follows: recruitment is the process of assessing a job, announcing the vacancy, arousing interest and stimulating people to apply, while selection is the process of choosing, for excellence, through the process of rejection or matching the applicants, first, against the attributes which we expect will make for success on the job, and secondly, matching the candidates one against the other until we have rank ordered all of them in order of relative suitability. And the incident is to accept the alternative hypothesis (H4) which stated that there is evidence to prove that inappropriate recruitment and selection process contributes to human problems in organization.
Based on the finding, the following recommendations were made. The recommendations if properly adhered would be designed to enhance the management of Human Resource in public sector organization of PHCN with a view to improving their productivity. These recommendations are:
- Annual performance appraisal and evaluation of workers should be properly and equitably conducted.
- Proper recruitment and selection processes should be adhere
- The work attitude of the staffs should be improved to help their productivity by encouraging job satisfaction.
- Promotion of the workers should be more regular and based on
Human Resource Management encourages the survival, growth and profitability of any public sector organization especially Power Holding Company of Nigeria PHCN.
The findings of this research work conform with the views and findings in Related Literatures already reviewed in Chapter two of this work and this primarily depicts that effective human resource management is a sine qua non to actualization of public sector organization productivity.
In recognition of this human resource management, the World Bank is gradually reviewing unemployment issues in Africa by providing recruitment forum for young unemployed people where companies, public sector organization and multinational companies can select qualified candidates based on merit to enhance the productivity of their workforce. Some of these ideas will help not only Power Holding Company of Nigeria PHCN but also indeed other government owned enterprises.
Some of these measures include the reform of the power sector Human resource management board by the federal government through the Federal Civil Service Commission (FCSC) which is aimed at meeting with the set goals for the establishment of the Power Holding Company of Nigeria PHCN in the first place as far as staff welfare and productivity is concerned.
Inspite of these commendable and vigorous steps by the government to restructure the economy of the nation and enhance the development of power in the country, it is clear from this work, that the road to development of Power Holding Company of Nigeria PHCN still requires inevitably more attention and commitment from both the government and management of Power Holding Company of Nigeria PHCN.
- Abassi, S. M. & Hollman, K. W. 2000. Turnover: the real bottom line, Public Personnel Management, 2(3): 303-342.
- Adamolekun, L. (ed) (2002). Public Administration in Africa: A Nigeria and Comparative Perspective: London: Longman.
- Adamolekun, L. (ed) (2002). Public Administration in Africa: Main issues and selected country studies. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited.
- Arkin, A. 2001. Double jeopardy, People Management, 7(4): 26 – 31.
- Armstrong, M and Baron, A (2004) Managing Performance: Performance management in action, CIPD, London
- Beardwell, I (1998) Voices on, People Management, 28 May, pp 32–36
- Bibbings, R (2003) Hearsay and heresy, The RoSPA Occupational Health and Safety Journal, July, pp 51–52
- Boxall, P and Purcell, J (2003) Strategic Human Resource Management, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke
- Bretton and Gold (1994) Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice, London: the Macmillan Press Ltd.
- Brewster, C (2004) European perspectives of human resource management, Human Resource Management Review, 14(4), pp 365–82
- Champy, James (1995b), “Management’s New Mandate,” Information week. (February 6), 57-58.