The Effects of Classroom Management and Control on the Academic Performance of Senior Secondary Student
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of classroom management on academic performance of students in Ojo local Government Area, Lagos State. Specifically, the work is aimed at ascertaining whether:
- Classroom management affects student’s academic performance.
- Classroom management has relationship with students’ academic performance.
- Classroom arrangement has relationship with the academic performance of students.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Our focus in this chapter is to critically examine relevant literatures that would assist in explaining the research problem and furthermore recognize the efforts of scholars who had previously contributed immensely to similar research. The chapter intends to deepen the understanding of the study and close the perceived gaps.
Precisely, the chapter will be considered in three sub-headings:
- Conceptual Framework
- Theoretical Framework
Classroom and Classroom Management A classroom is a space provided in a school where students gather and the teacher meets them for lectures. It is a room designated for teaching and learning. Classroom is a room set aside and specifically designed and furnish for the purpose of teaching and learning (Akinwumiju & Agabi 2008) in (Agabi, et al., 2013). A classroom is one of the facilities a school must have. Agabi, Onyake and Wali succinctly put: a school is not complete without at least one block of classroom to facilitate organized teaching and learning. A classroom is very important because it facilitate teaching and learning. A conducive classroom environment increases the desire for knowledge and heightens creativity in learners, (Agabi et al., 2013). The classroom protects learners from the erratic weather condition such as rain, wind, and extreme weather conditions (Agabi et al., 2013). The classroom, with the aid of its facilities such as: the writing board, classroom seats and instructional materials, enhances teaching and learning. For the classroom to be useful for the purpose it was meant to serve, teaching and learning, it has to be organized and maintained. This brings about the concept of classroom management. Classroom management refer to the sum total of plan of actions taken by the teacher in the classroom to bring about a conducive classroom environment that supports teaching and learning leading to success and achievement. Mecreary (2010) in Agabi, Onyeieke and Wali, (2013) defined classroom management as the process and strategies an educator uses to maintain a classroom environment that is conducive to students learning and success. Similarly, Dollad and Christensen (2015) defined classroom management as the action a teacher takes to bring about an environment that support and make easy instructions, academic, social and emotional learning Teachers in the classroom are the managers of the classroom activities. He is concerned with maintaining order, regulating the sequence of events and directing his own attention towards achieving educational goals. Classroom management plays a very important role in the teaching and learning process. Marzono (2003) said a classroom that is well managed will provide an environment in which teaching and learning can flourish. The success of any educational system depends largely on the effectiveness of classroom management. Classroom management techniques have been divided into two major components, behavioral management and instructional management (Martin & Sass, 2010). Classroom management has been highlighted across numerous research studies as a major variable that affects students’ academic performance (Marzono, 2008). The most obvious reason for this assertion is that, effective classroom management sets the stage for teaching and learning. It sets a tone in the classroom that captures students’ attention – as a necessity for effective teaching and learning (Marzono, 2008). This statement is obvious since a classroom which is chaotic and disorganized as a result of poor classroom management is highly unlikely to enhance expansive learning and students’ academic performance and might, indeed, inhibit it. In chaos, according to Idopise (2004), very little academic learning can take place. According to Walter (2006), classroom management differs from one teacher to another because of the teacher’s personality, teaching style, preparedness, and number of students in the classroom. According to Umoren (2010), the concept of classroom management is broader than the notion of student control and discipline, it includes all the things teachers must do in the classroom to foster students’ academic involvement and cooperation in classroom activities to create conducive learning environment. Morse (2012), relates that classroom management involves curtailing learner’s disruptive behaviors such as fighting and noise making, close observation,arrangement of classroom learning materials, and response to students who suffer from poor sight (vision), poor hea3etb ring, poor reading, poor writing, poor spelling, shame, dullness, hyperactivity and poor study habits. When classroom management is viewed in a more wider and holistic sense, incorporating every element of the classroom from lesson delivery to classroom environment becomes important (Nicholas, 2007). According to Nicholas (2007), this includes creating organized and orderly classroom, establishing expectations, inducing students’ cooperation in learning tasks, and dealing with the procedural demands of the classroom. This view of classroom management contrasts to a more narrow view of classroom management as it deals with just discipline and control. According to Bassey (2012), the wider view of classroom management shows increased engagement, reduction in inappropriate and disruptive behaviors, promotion of student responsibility for academic work, and improved academic performance of students. According to Walter (2006), classroom management differs from one teacher to another because of the teacher’s personality, teaching style, preparedness, and number of students in the classroom. According to Umoren (2010), the concept of classroom management is broader than the notion of student control and discipline, it includes all the things teachers must do in the classroom to foster students’ academic involvement and cooperation in classroom activities to create conducive learning environment. Morse (2012), relates that classroom management involves curtailing learner’s disruptive behaviors such as fighting and noise making, close observation, arrangement of classroom learning materials, and response to students who suffer from poor sight (vision), poor hea3etb ring, poor reading, poor writing, poor spelling, shame, dullness, hyperactivity and poor study habits. When classroom management is viewed in a more wider and holistic sense, incorporating every element of the classroom from lesson delivery to classroom environment becomes important (Nicholas, 2007). According to Nicholas (2007), this includes creating organized and orderly classroom, establishing expectations, inducing students’ cooperation in learning tasks, and dealing with the procedural demands of the classroom. This view of classroom management contrasts to a more narrow view of classroom management as it deals with just discipline and control. According to Bassey (2012), the wider view of classroom management shows increased engagement, reduction in inappropriate and disruptive behaviors, promotion of student responsibility for academic work, and improved academic performance of Statement of the Problem Un‐conducive learning environment in the public schools has posed serious problems to students’ academic performance over many decades ago. This trend has been on the increase on daily basis. Its prevalence has attracted the concern of the teachers, parents, the guidance counselors and many researchers. Effective classroom management has been discussed extensively at educational seminars and workshops, with efforts aimed at bringing lasting solution to the problem of students’ poor academic performance encountered in secondary schools. In most cases, classroom teachers become tired of using verbal instruction in attempts to establish effective classroom management, but this method alone does not produce desired results. Many teachers use corporal punishment to instill fear and discipline in the classroom yet there are prevalence of disruptive behaviors in the classroom. A lot of teachers waste time and energy in intensive classroom supervision so that the classroom climate could be conducive for lessons. Some classroom teachers delegates authority to deserving prefects such as time keeper, noise prefects, class prefects, etc. to share in the responsibility of ensuring a conducive learning atmosphere in the classroom.
Effective Teaching A teacher needs to reflect on the learning environment he has created and whether this engages all children actively and meaningfully. Do teachers involve all students – also those at the back of the classroom? How do teachers ask questions? It is important for a teacher to investigate how his style of teaching can affect progress and behaviour of different students (Omoifo, 2007). Teachers plan and organizes the environment of the classroom, determine the detailed curriculum to be presented to the students, as well as its sequence and pacing, the overall structure of the lesson (how much and what kinds of student listening and activities), the feedback mechanisms to know how each child is ‘getting on’ and the correctives to be taken. Timing, pacing and sequencing of different teaching learning interactions is an essential part of classroom management and many behaviour problems can be avoided by improved management of the classroom environment and activities. Effective teachers and classroom managers address the needs of children both in terms of what they teach and how they teach. Though teaching is generally a group activity, learning is very individual. Effective teachers are sensitive to these differences and take actions to accommodate these so that, ideally, each child is provided an optimal learning experience.
AREA OF STUDY
Lagos, Nigeria’s largest city, sprawls inland from the Gulf of Guinea across Lagos Lagoon. Victoria Island, the financial center of the metropolis, is known for its beach resorts, boutiques and nightlife. To the north, Lagos Island is home to the National Museum Lagos, displaying cultural artifacts and craftworks. Nearby is Freedom Park, once a colonial-era prison and now a major venue for concerts and public events
Ojo is a Local Government Area and town in Lagos State, Nigeria. Lagos State University is located there. Ojo is located on the eastern section of the Trans–West African Coastal Highway, about 37km west of Lagos. It is part of the Lagos Metropolitan Area.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitute of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried out to examine the effects of classroom management and control on the academic performance of senior secondary student in OJO local government area, Lagos state. Five(5) Schools were selected for the study.and the selected schools are: Osolu High School, Ivery Grammar School, Egan High School, Awori College, Ojo High School in Lagos State form the population of the study.
The population size is the entire School in OJO local government area, Lagos State
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of two hundred (200) questionnaires were administered to respondents. For this study a total of 200 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
In this study, our focus was to examine the effects of classroom management and control on the academic performance of senior secondary student using selected schools in OJO as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting if Classroom management affects student’s academic performance.if Classroom management has relationship with students’ academic performance.if Classroom arrangement has relationship with the academic performance of students.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 120 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from students and teachers of the selected schools.
Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:
- There is a relationship between classroom management and students’ academic performance
- There is a significant relationship between good classroom management and student’ academic performance
- Student’ academic performance in the class be traced to their classroom management
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- Classroom discipline should be encouraged by both teachers and school management since it leads to students’ academic performance.
- Teacher effectiveness should be enhanced by regular inspection by school administrators and training and retraining of teachers.
- Reward system should be encouraged and provided for in the budget of the school by the management.
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