The Effects of School Factors on Student’s Performance in Junior Secondary Schools Agricultural Science in Ido Local Government Area, Ibadan
Objective of the study
This study examines the effects of school factors on student’s performance in junior secondary schools Agricultural science in Ido Local government area, Ibadan .The specific objectives of this study are:
- To determine the impact of class size on student academic performance
- To examine the effect of Availability of instructional materials on the student academic performance
- To determine the effect of Learning environment on student academic performance
This section examines literature related to the study.
The existentialist philosophies of both Glasser and Kohn are the cornerstone of my belief system which states that we are the center of our experience the one who perceives, acts in and reflects on the world and who are internally motivated by everything we do. Teaching the tenets of this philosophy (Choice Theory) to my students would be one of the first pieces of instructions I would give them, bringing them to an awareness of their responsibility to make their own decisions about their learning and behavior in the classroom. My philosophy is based on Glasser’s “Choice Theory” which posits that students must have a choice, and that if they help choose their curriculum and decide on the rules in the classroom, they will then have ownership of their learning, have pride in their participation, will have higher self-esteem and will exhibit greater levels of self confidence and higher levels of cognition. This approach to classroom management creates a safe space to learn, as mainly it is their space–their classroom, they own it, they will decorate it and they will decide the rules. When this sense of ownership is established, they will come to class willingly and with enthusiasm because they want to be challenged.
Kohn’s theories on classroom management are quite similar to Glasser’s. Grades and praise, Kohn says, kills intrinsic motivation and the desire to learn, and this concept is, of course, antithetical to what we’ve always been taught. The punishment/praise grade system that we were all indoctrinated in explains why the system has failed so many students as the competition norms of most classrooms indicates that for every winner/top of the class, there will be thirty-nine losers dealing with the inherent self-esteem issues surrounding their constant failure.
A key component of Glasser’s theory is that the basic need of personal competence is an inner drive that is self-initiating and is unrelated to the need for extrinsic rewards of praise or grades. Glasser’s basic need of competence ties in perfectly with Kohn’s theory that extrinsic rewards destroy a student’s inherent intrinsic motivation by reducing the exchange to a demoralizing, manipulative dysfunctional exchange that reduces their natural interest in a subject. Unfortunately, the traditional appeal has always been to the students’ competitive instincts. Kohn states that extrinsic motivation focuses on what the students do not know, rather than on their possibilities for growth. We must question the traditional assumptions about pedagogy, as right answers are not as important as the process of exploring ideas and understanding the concepts. Helping students tap into and develop their inner authentic selves where they think, feel and care on a deeper level is our primary responsibility; arousing students’ interests in learning is another.
According to Kohn and Glasser, instead of focusing on grades and tests, we must help our students to reason, to comunicate, and help them develop social and personal responsibility, self-awareness and a capacity for leadership. Thinking deeply and critically should be the first goal of education, the second goal is the desire for more education and a lifelong affair with learning.
Kohn and Glasser’s theories are both non-coercive, but most importantly their theories are based on existentialist ideals of free choice and responsibility. Kounin’s theories, however, take a completely different approach, where his practical and hands-on philosophy proves to be an excellent addition to the holistic theories of Kohn and Glasser. Kounin’s management style addresses the fundamentals of classroom theory in concrete language and states that students must be made aware of all expectations, then, if these expectations are not met, some form of desist strategy is required. Kounin’s pragmatic and practical approach blends nicely with the existentialist philosophy of Kohn and Glasser, resulting in the perfect approach to classroom management. Kounin has determined that the mastery of classroom management must include a display of “with-it-ness”, the ability to teach to the learning style of the group instead of the individual, and organizing of lessons and teaching methods. The goal of classroom management is to create an environment which not only stimulates student learning but also motivates students to learn. Kounin’s approach is in line with both Glasser and Kohn as he also posits that the keys to successful classroom management is in preventing management problems from occurring in the first place by putting into place good organization and planning.
In this chapter, we would describe how the study was carried out.
It is a term used to describe a number of decisions which need to be taken regarding the collection of data before they are collected. (Nwana, 1981). It provides guidelines which direct the researcher towards solving the research problem and may vary depending on the nature of the problem being studied. According to Okaja ( 2003, p. 2),” research design means the structuring of investigation aimed at identifying variables and their relationship, it is used for the purpose of obtaining data to enable the investigator test hypothesis or answer research question by providing procedural outline for conducting research”. It is therefore, an outline or scheme that serves as a useful guide to the researcher in his efforts to generate data for his study. This study adopts the survey research design. According to Babbie (1990) cited in Akarika, Ukpe and Ikon (2019:58) survey is probably the best method available to the social scientist interested in collecting original data for describing a population too large to observe directly.
This study was carried out in Ido Local government Area in Ibadan Ondo state Nigeria.
Sources of Data
The data for this study were generated from two main sources; Primary sources and secondary sources. The primary sources include questionnaire, interviews and observation. The secondary sources include journals, bulletins, textbooks and the internet.
Population of the study
A study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitute of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description (Prince Udoyen: 2019). The population of the study consist of all the junior secondary schools in Ido Local Government Area in Ibadan. For the purpose of the study the following schools will form the study population:
- Apata Grammar School, Logudu Apata
- Leo Community High School Elere ,Apata Ibadan
- St Michaels Grammar School, Owode, Apata Ibadan
PRESENTATION OF RESULT AND ANALYSIS
This chapter deals with data presentation, analysis and interpretation. As indicated in the introductory chapter the main instruments of this research are the questionnaires, followed by the interviews (even though secondary sources were used). Out of one hundred and thirty three questionnaires administered, Ninty were filled and returned. This shows that ninety percent of the total number of questionnaire administered were analyzed.
Percentages were used to interprete all the research findings. It is assumed that the analysis of Effect of School based factors on the students academic performance would become manifested through the pattern of responses of the respondents to the items in the questionnaire.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
In this study, our focus was to carryout a critical analysis on the effects of school factors on student’s performance in junior secondary schools Agricultural science in Ido Local government area, Ibadan. The study specifically was aimed at ascertaining the effects of school based factors like class size, availability of instructional material and learning environment on student’s performance in junior secondary schools Agricultural science in Ido Local government area, Ibadan. This study reviewed and anchored its framework on The existentialist philosophies of both Glasser and Kohn are the cornerstone of my belief system which states that we are the center of our experience the one who perceives, acts in and reflects on the world and who are internally motivated by everything we do..
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 133 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are teachers and students in the 3 selected secondary schools in Ido Local government area in Ibadan.
The findings revealed:
According to the from research question one 45(50%) of the respondents said class size affects the student academic performance in Junior Secondary Schools Agricultural Science in Ido Local government Area to a very high extent, 20(22.2%) of the respondents said that class size affects the student academic performance in Junior Secondary Schools Agricultural Science in Ido Local government Area to high extent, 20(22.2%) of the respondents agreed that class size affects the student academic performance in Junior Secondary Schools Agricultural Science in Ido Local government Area to low extent while 5(5.6%) of the respondents said class size affects the student academic performance in Junior Secondary Schools Agricultural Science in Ido Local government Area to no extent. This implies that class size affects the student academic performance in Junior Secondary Schools Agricultural Science in Ido Local government Area Ibadan.
According to findings from research question two 50(55.6%) of the respondent agreed that availability of instructional materials affect the student academic performance in Junior Secondary Schools Agricultural Science in Ido Local government Area to Very high extent, this means proper or adequate instructional materials will greatly affect students performance in Agricultural science further 30(33.3%) of the respondent opined that availability of instructional materials affect the student academic performance in Junior Secondary Schools Agricultural Science in Ido Local government Area to high extent, while a mere 10(11.1%) of the respondents said that availability of instructional materials affect the student academic performance in Junior Secondary Schools Agricultural Science in Ido Local government Area to a low extent, and no respondent selected No extent.
According to the finding from research question three 35(38.9%) of the respondents agreed that Learning environment affects the student academic performance to very high extent, further 25(27.8%) of the respondents said that Learning environment affects the student academic performance to high extent, while exactly 25(27.8%) of the total respondents argued that Learning environment affects the student academic performance to low extent, and finally 5(5.6%) of the respondents said that Learning environment affects the student academic performance to No extent.
Based on the responses obtained,
The researcher makes the following recommendation;
- The head teachers should attend seminars and workshops that teach the importance of a well-managed human resource. This is because the study depicted majority of the schools are facing a challenge in schools’ human resource.
- The DEO should arrange for workshops for both teachers and head teachers to be sensitized of the ways to improve the schools finance resource that affect academic performance of students.
iii. The Head teachers in the LGA should arrange for school exchange programs to learn how to manage the physical resource in the school that influence academic performance of the students.
- The government should organize workshops and trainings for the head teachers to make them understand the benefits of learning resources.
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