The Extent of Use of Instructional Materials for Effective Teaching-learning of Technical Education in Junior Secondary School
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the research work is to examine the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary schools. Other specific objectives of the study include:
- To examine the effect of the use of instructional materials in teaching on the academic achievement in technical education
- To determine the factors affecting the performance of student in technical education
- To determine the relationship between the use of instructional materials in teaching and Students academic performance in technical education
- To discuss on the characteristics of teaching and learning of instructional materials for technical education.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Our focus in this chapter is to critically examine relevant literatures that would assist in explaining the research problem and furthermore recognize the efforts of scholars who had previously contributed immensely to similar research. The chapter intends to deepen the understanding of the study and close the perceived gaps.
Precisely, the chapter will be considered in two sub-headings:
- Conceptual Framework
- Theoretical Framework
Instructional materials refer to those alternative channels of communication, which a classroom teacher can use to concretize a concept during teaching and learning process. Traditionally, classroom teachers have relied heavily on the ‘talk-chalk’ method during their teaching. But recently, instructional materials help to provide variations in the ways in which messages are sent across. In using instructional materials teachers and students do not only extend the range of sense organs we use but also extend the range of materials used for convening the same message through the same organ. For instance, in teaching a topic a teacher can manipulate real objects or use their stimulators. Instructional materials therefore constitute the media of exchange through which a message transaction is facilitated between a source and a receiver. In addition to extending the range of materials that can be used to convey the same instructional message to learners instructional materials also facilitate the ‘process’ nature of communication. In this passage, the process nature of communication implies that both the source and the receiver of a message are actively involved in a communication encounter. Infarct, it means that both the receiver and the source share and exchange ideas, feelings in any communication (Tyler, 1987, Dike 1989).
Instructional Materials For Communication
Instructional materials do so because they constitute tangible products, which can be used by learners. During such usage, a learner interacts with the material. Such interaction may entail that a leaner manipulates the instructional material and expresses his/her views about the problem and idea encapsulated in the material. Then, any feedback obtained from such usage informs the teacher (which is the source) the extent to which a learner has attained an instructional objective. Besides, Nigeria is aware of the importance of instructional materials for effective communication in her school system. In 1975 for instance, the federal ministry of education organized an exhibition of improved instructional materials by classroom teachers all over the federation in four centers- Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna and Enugu. During these exhibitions participants displayed various type of instructional materials, which they improvised to help learners concretive instruction in different subject areas. As for people that participated in this exhibition, they thought that a follow-up to these exhibitions could have been comp odium of all improvised instructional materials with a view to establishing infrastructure to encourage the mass production of suitable ones. Unfortunately, this follow-up was not encouraged. Despite, the federal ministry of education in keeping with its realization of the importance of instructional materials established a National Education Technology Center (NETC) in Kaduna. Also then, states ministries of education have also established units responsible for instructional materials many colleges of education, polytechnics and universities have set up Departments of Educational Technology, at training mechanics in the production and use of different soft ware/hardware materials (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1977,1991,2004). . But despite these increased awareness on the part of educationists, an awareness that led to these establishments, I discovered that Nigerian teachers still rely on the traditional ‘talk-chalk’ method of teaching. This accounts for why the federal ministry of Education in 1985 organized another exhibition of instructional materials improvised by classroom teachers. As a new dimension, 1985 is exhibition took the form of completion among the nineteen (19) states of this federation. In Rivers state for instance, a Task force on National festival of instructional materials was created. These task force organized competitions in each local government headquarter with a view to selecting winners to represent the state at the national level in kaduna. Hopefully, the outcome of this competition will be the establishments of other infrastructures which will eventually lead to mass production, distribution and utilization of these instructional materialssince it (instructional materials) provide a wide range of alternative Avenue through which the same unit of instruction can be presented to an audience.
AREA OF STUDY
Enugu, usually referred to as Enugu State to distinguish it from the city of Enugu, is a state in southeastern Nigeria, created in 1991 from part of the old Anambra State. Its capital and largest city is Enugu, from which the state derives its name Enugu as an urban town owned its rise to the material-bitumen coal discovered in Udi, and the digging of the deposits. The population of the city grew due to booming trade, employment opportunities, industrial production activities and other local and international social human activities in the environment.
Enugu North is a Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the city of Enugu. It has an area of 106 km² and a population of 244,852 at the 2006 census. The postal code of the area is 400.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitute of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried out to examine the extent of use of instructional materials for effective teaching-learning of technical education in junior secondary school in Enugu North, Enugu state. Fourteen (14) schools were picked but only nine(9) were selected. The selected schools are:
- Metropolitan girls secondary school
- Urban girls secondary school
- City girls secondary school
- Community secondary school
- Federal government college
- CCSS Ngwo
- Queens school
- Government technical college
- Union secondary school .
All these selected schools in Enugu State form the population of the study.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of one hundred and ninety eight (198) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only one hundred and twenty (120) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 120 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
In this study, our focus was to examine the the extent of use of instructional materials for effective teaching-learning of technical education in junior secondary school
Using selected schools as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting the effect of the use of instructional materials in teaching on the academic achievement in technical education. the factors affecting the performance of student in technical education. the relationship between the use of instructional materials in teaching and students academic performance in technical education. the effect of management decision on the availability of instructional materials for teaching and learning technical education
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 120 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from teachers and students of the selected schools.
Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:
- Instructional material is used for easy understanding
- Instructional material is used to create interest for the subject
- Instructional material is used for navigating difficult equipments.
- Non availability of interest in the subject affects learning of technical education
- Non availability of technical education equipment affects learning of technical education
- Non availability of qualified teachers affects learning of technical education
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
1,Adequate resources should be allocated to technical and vocational education. Inadequate funds affect the provision of essentials such as well equipped laboratories and workshops, relevant textbooks and training manuals.
- Vocational and technical education requires skilled and proficient teachers. Teachers preparation should be given a priority attention. There is the need for regular in service training for teachers of technology to upgrade their skills.
- Periodical industrial training for teacher is a sine-qua-non in other 3,to keep them abreast with the technological changes in the industry.
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