OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
This study is aimed specifically at analyzing and diagnosing the factor affecting the teaching and learning the factor affecting the teaching and learning of agricultural science and also at providing suitable suggestions that will help improve the teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schools in Ovia North East Local Government Area, Edo State. The following are some of the specific objective to be achieved;
- To identify the factors affecting the teaching and learning of agricultural science among secondary school students.
- To examine the factors affecting/inhibiting the teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schools in Ovia North East Local Government Area.
- To find the possible ways of over-coming these factors.
- To make recommendations based on the findings it will hope that the findings of this project work will be of immense benefit to agricultural science teaching and learning throughout Ovia North East Local Government Area, Edo State, since they will be exposed to factors hindering the development of agricultural science.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter gives an insight into various studies conducted by outstanding researchers, as well as explained terminologies with regards to the factors affecting the teaching and learning of Agriculture science in senior secondary schools in Nigeria. The chapter also gives a resume of the history and present status of the problem delineated by a concise review of previous studies into closely related problems.
2.2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Constructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world we live in. Each of us generates our own “rules” and “mental models,” which we use to make sense of our experiences. Learning, therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our mental models to accommodate new experiences.
There are several guiding principles of constructivism:
- Learning is a search for meaning. Therefore, learning must start with the issues around which students are actively trying to construct meaning.
- Meaning requires understanding wholes as well as parts. And parts must be understood in the context of wholes. Therefore, the learning process focuses on primary concepts, not isolated facts.
- In order to teach well, we must understand the mental models that students use to perceive the world and the assumptions they make to support those models.
- The purpose of learning is for an individual to construct his or her own meaning, not just memorize the “right” answers and regurgitate someone else’s meaning. Since education is inherently interdisciplinary, the only valuable way to measure learning is to make the assessment part of the learning process, ensuring it provides students with information on the quality of their learning.
How Constructivism Impacts Learning Curriculum
Constructivism calls for the elimination of a standardized curriculum. Instead, it promotes using curricula customized to the students’ prior knowledge. Also, it emphasizes hands-on problem solving. Instruction–Under the theory of constructivism, educators focus on making connections between facts and fostering new understanding in students. Instructors tailor their teaching strategies to student responses and encourage students to analyze, interpret, and predict information. Teachers also rely heavily on open-ended questions and promote extensive dialogue among students. Assessment–Constructivism calls for the elimination of grades and standardized testing. Instead, assessment becomes part of the learning process so that students play a larger role in judging their own progress.
Behaviorism is a theory of animal and human learning that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts mental activities. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior.
Experiments by behaviorists identify conditioning as a universal learning process. There are two different types of conditioning, each yielding a different behavioral pattern:
- Classic conditioning occurs when a natural reflex responds to a stimulus. The most popular example is Pavlov’s observation that dogs salivate when they eat or even see food. Essentially, animals and people are biologically “wired” so that a certain stimulus will produce a specific response.
- Behavioral or operant conditioning occurs when a response to a stimulus is reinforced. Basically, operant conditioning is a simple feedback system: If a reward or reinforcement follows the response to a stimulus, then the response becomes more probable in the future. For example, leading behaviorist B.F. Skinner used reinforcement techniques to teach pigeons to dance and bowl a ball in a mini-alley.
How Behaviorism Impacts Learning
This theory is relatively simple to understand because it relies only on observable behavior and describes several universal laws of behavior. Its positive and negative reinforcement techniques can be very effective–both in animals, and in treatments for human disorders such as autism and antisocial behavior. Teachers, who reward or punish student behaviors, often use behaviorism.
Brain-based Learning Theory
This learning theory is based on the structure and function of the brain. As long as the brain is not prohibited from fulfilling its normal processes, learning will occur.
How Brain-Based Learning Impacts Education Curriculum
Teachers must design learning around student interests and make learning contextual. Instruction–Educators let students learn in teams and use peripheral learning. Teachers structure learning around real problems, encouraging students to also learn in settings outside the classroom and the school building. Assessment–Since all students are learning, their assessment should allow them to understand their own learning styles and preferences. This way, students monitor and enhance their own learning process.
What Brain-Based Learning Suggests
How the brain works has a significant impact on what kinds of learning activities are most effective. Educators need to help students have appropriate experiences and capitalize on those experiences. As Renate Caine illustrates on p. 113 of her book Making Connections, three interactive elements are essential to this process:
- Teachers must immerse learners in complex, interactive experiences that are both rich and real. One excellent example is immersing students in a foreign culture to teach them a second language. Educators must take advantage of the brain’s ability to parallel process.
- Students must have a personally meaningful challenge. Such challenges stimulate a student’s mind to the desired state of alertness.
- In order for a student to gain insight about a problem, there must be intensive analysis of the different ways to approach it, and about learning in general. This is what’s known as the “active processing of experience.” A few other tenets of brain-based learning include: Feedback is best when it comes from reality, rather than from an authority figure. People learn best when solving realistic problems. The big picture can’t be separated from the details. Because every brain is different, educators should allow learners to customize their own environments. The best problem solvers are those that laugh! Designers of educational tools must be artistic in their creation of brain-friendly environments. Instructors need to realize that the best way to learn is not through lecture, but by participation in realistic environments that let learners try new things safely.
Learning Style Theory
This approach to learning emphasizes the fact that individuals perceive and process information in very different ways. The learning styles theory implies that how much individuals learn has more to do with whether the educational experience is geared toward their particular style of learning than whether or not they are “smart.” In fact, educators should not ask, “Is this student smart?” but rather “How is this student smart?”
How the Learning Styles Theory Impacts Education Curriculum
Educators must place emphasis on intuition, feeling, sensing, and imagination, in addition to the traditional skills of analysis, reason, and sequential problem solving. Instruction–Teachers should design their instruction methods to connect with all four learning styles, using various combinations of experience, reflection, conceptualization, and experimentation. Instructors can introduce a wide variety of experiential elements into the classroom, such as sound, music, visuals, movement, experience, and even talking. Assessment–Teachers should employ a variety of assessment techniques, focusing on the development of “whole brain” capacity and each of the different learning styles.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 An Overview
This research work sets out to study the social factors affecting teaching and learning in senior secondary schools in Nigeria using senior secondary schools in Abuja as a premise.
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is a significant relationship between factors affecting the teaching and learning of Agriculture science in senior secondary schools.
Efforts were made to shed lights on the theoretical and conceptual framework of the importance of using activities in teaching and learning of Agriculture science in senior secondary schools, the impact on students and the relationship between the introduction of activities in teaching and possible improvement of students’ interest in class were also discussed.
Chapter three concentrated on the methodology of the research. Analysis of data, the interpretation of data results as well as the testing of the relevant hypotheses were presented and discussed in chapter four.
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