The Impact of Communication, Information Technology Application on Maritime Security. A Case Study of Calabar Seaport
Objective of the study
- Examine the impact of communication and information technology on maritime security
- Identify the challenges and limitations of communication and information technology applications in maritime security
- To asses maritime security, information and communications technology
Reviewed of related literature
INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT)
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is defined as the technology that facilitates Communication, processing and transmisssion of information by electronic means (Adelekan, 2008).
Bamiro (2011) defined ICT as the use of electronic devices for sending-out, storing and receiving information. Information and communications technology is an umbrella that involves any communication application or device, encompassing; television, radio, satellite systems, cellular phones, computer hardware and software.
According to Aliyu (2007) information and communication technology is the use of computers and other electronic equipment for storing, analysing and sending out information that are necessary for the purpose of acquiring and sending out information, ideas, skills, knowledge, attitude, beliefs and feeling with the aim of bringing about particular changes in an individual.
Information is the fact about a person, group, event, situation, company, country (Adelekan,2008). Communication is the process of passing information from one person or group to one another. When the communication process makes use of devices and systems which transmit electronic or optical signals over long distances, it is more appropriately referred to as telecommunications. The methods and devices used in gathering information and communicating it are all included in the ICT.
The ICT process has changed social relationships between mankind for the better, so it is applicable to security. These definitions therefore encompass the full range of ICT from Radio, T.V to telephones, computers and the internet.
Heeks (1999) in his own contribution defined ICTs as electronic devices for computing, processing, storing and communicating information. He categorised these devices into; digital information (which comprises of computer hardware, Software and networks) and intermediate technology (which is based on analogue information waves like radio, T.V and telephones). Okpara (2004) sees ICT as the science of extracting, collating, storing, processing, utilizing and disseminating data. In simple term, such technology involves the use of data processor, facsimile machines, high speed modern printing machines, computer software, high resolution monitors and various storage facilities.
According to Arokoyo (2005) ICT materials /tools which have great potentials for use in security includes: radio, television, telephones, short message services (SMS), the web publishing and search engines, cameras, video, E-mail, computer, CD-ROM, and DVD.
In his own submission, Arokoyo (2005) observed that some ICT materials are often not included as part of the regular ICT but are nevertheless information and communication technologies in themselves, such as printed materials, photograph, Group meetings, seminar (workshop/conferences).
Experiences however have shown that for most developing countries, all sorts of traditional information and communication technologies such as radio, drama and video/TV used to educate people on the importance of security.
The digital camera with videos capabilities can be used to send information because ‘‘a picture is worth a thousand words and will enable even those constrained by literacy to communicate’’ (Arokoyo, 2005). Most radio and TV stations scored high in popularity and listenership because of their special interest and focus in broadcasting security issues to local audiences in local languages (Arokoyo, 2005). Access to radio especially is extensive compared with any other ICT with 4 in 10 persons living in the rural areas (Arokoyo, 2005)
Security is the degree of protection to safeguard a nation, union of nations; Person or persons against danger, damage, loss and crime (Oxford Dictionary, 20005).
Securities as a form of protection are structures and processes that provide or improve security as a condition.
The international country began to place emphasis on security matters in relation to Maritime development issues during the early 90’s. A consensus was reached on the need to broaden and deepen the concept of security, taking account of the political context at the end of the cold war (Harold, 1983). The concept of security was put forward by United Nations bodies and has placed human security firmly on the global political and development agenda. Insecurity is the threats and challenges to security which transcend national defence, law and order to encompass all political, economic and social issues that guarantee a life free from risk and fear. Security can be thought of as a ‘’public good’’, responding to the strategic need to support sustainable human development at the same time as promoting national, regional and global peace and stability. The human security approach has also made it clear that any attempt to address security related matters needs to be based on consultation and collaboration with different set of actors which frequently have different interests e.g civilian (Military, governmental/non-governmental, local/national/regional/international).
All what have been said so far has made it difficult for scholars to reach agreement on a single authoritative definition of security that assist the government in effectively tackling multifarious challenges and threats, including violent conflict, crime, disenfranchisement economic deprivation, and environmental degradation.
ACTORS IN THE SECURITY SYSTEMS
Security system requires a wide range of actors and their roles, responsibilities and actions must be defined in a way that is compatible with the establishment of sound democratic governance, principles, transparency, and the rule of laws. The following are the actors in the security system of a nation:
Core security actors: Armed forces, Police, Paramilitary forces, presidential guards, military and civilian intelligence and security services, custom authorities, civil defence etc.
Security management and oversight bodies: Executives institutions of national government, national security advisory bodies, legislature and legislative select committees, ministries of defence, internal affairs, foreign affairs, traditional authorities and local authorities, financial management bodies such as ministries, budget offices, financial audit and planning units and chief security officers e.g civilian review boards, public complaints commissions.
Justice and law enforcement institutions: Judiciary, justice ministries, prisons, criminal investigation and prosecution services, human rights commissions, customary and traditional justice systems.
Non statutory security forces: Private security companies, political party militias, private armies and body guards units (Snow, 1987).
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried to examine the impact of communication, information technology Application on Maritime security. A case study of Calabar seaport form the population of the study.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only seventy-seven (77) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 77 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain there are no challenges and limitations of communication and information technology applications in maritime security. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing there are no challenges and limitations of communication and information technology applications in maritime security.
This study was on there are no challenges and limitations of communication and information technology applications in maritime security. Three objectives were raised which included: Examine the impact of communication and information technology on maritime security, identify the challenges and limitations of communication and information technology applications in maritime security and to asses maritime security, information and communications technology. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from staff of Calabar seaport. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).
Information technology has led to successful practices in Nigeria. The information technology has being able to provide information which is abundant. Though the use of ICT and internet are available in large numbers than ever before and they have positively impacted on security and made it more worthwhile and efficient.
In order to improve on the use of ICT in national security, the government should encourage the development of information technology in Nigeria. However, the recommendations proffered in this paper if strictly adhered to by the government might be a way of boosting the exposition of ICT as a tool to salvage the country from internal and external aggression. Nigeria should therefore, quicken the pace of development and embrace technology as a re-engineering strategy to bring about security revolution in Nigeria
- Government should look into the improvement of higher education and economy.
- Government should pay more attention to the funding of ICT so that it can be of greater help as tools in monitoring security system.
- Our leaders should exhibit good moral character in their governance and eradicate corruption in the society. They should foster a democratic political order, buttressed by physical safety and economic growth, which helps to protect and empower people.
- Power sector should be adequately funded so that the supply of power will be useful for the operation of ICT so that it will be easier for the security stakeholders to perform their civic duties
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