The Impact of Globalization on the Teaching and Learning of Economics in Senior Secondary Schools
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is as follows:
- To examine the meaning and concepts of globalization.
- To discuss how globalization relates to teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school.
- To investigate how globalization can maintain and sustain teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school.
- To examine the effects of globalization on teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school.
A review of the literature review as well as the practice of global education over the last decade reveals that several major authors have generally used a similar typology of “Approaches”(Algner et al, 1992; Arum &Van de Water, 1992; De Wit, 1995; Knight, 1994, 1996,1997). By approaches the authors refer to the stances adopted by persons in leadership positions towards the promotion and implementation of programs aimed at globalization.. There is a general consensus among world nations that “an increasing emphasis on the knowledge economy, demographic shifts, mobility of labor force, and increased trade in services are all factors that are driving nations to place more importance in developing and recruiting human capital or brain power through global initiatives (Knight, 2004). Although the categories of approach, the authors use sometimes include overlapping elements, there are different approaches or theories being used to describe the concept of globalization.
The Uppala Model
The most well known model of globalization behavior, the so-called Uppsala Model, has been claimed to be very general and therefore applicable to many different firms and different situations (Pedersen and Petersen 1998).
The Uppsala model has described the globalization of a firm as a process of experiential learning and incremental commitments which leads to an evolutionary development in a foreign market. Johanson and Vahlne formulated this approach in 1977, referring to empirical observations on Swedish manufacturing firms from their studies at the global business department of Uppsala University.
One of the central aims of the Uppsala model has been to explain how the organization learns and gains knowledge throughout its global operations. The model explains how firms gradually intensify their activities in foreign markets. The key features of Uppsala models are the following: firms first gain experience from the domestic market before they move to foreign markets; firms start their foreign operations from culturally and/or geographically close countries and move gradually to culturally and geographically more distant countries; firms start their foreign operations by using traditional exports and gradually move to using more intensive and demanding operation modes (sales subsidiaries etc.) both at the company and target country level
The Uppsala model also proposes that foreign sales begin with occasional export orders that are followed by regular exports; Finally, the firm will not commit higher levels of resources to the market until it has acquired increasing levels of experiential knowledge and therefore the globalization evolves stepwise at a relatively slow pace because of local market regulations and/or organizational learning. Uppsala model specifies that level of commitment may also decrease or cease if performance and prospect are not sufficiently met.
The core concepts of the model are market commitment, market knowledge, commitment decisions, and current activities. All tangible and intangible assets that a firm accumulates in a specific geographical market make up its market commitment.
This is a matter both of the sheer amount of resources committed and the degree to which they are committed to a specific market (cf. Johanson and Vahlne, 1990). The latter refers to the relative ease or difficulty of transferring resources to another market. For instance, well- established local customer relationships tend to be idiosyncratic to a particular geographic market.
This chapter gives a description of the procedures that the researcher followed in conducting the study. It covers the analytical methods that were used in order to achieve the objective of the study which was to investigate the strategies adopted by the Teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school in globalizing its programs. It also covers the source of data, research design, target population, methods of data collection, and data analysis techniques used.
The study adopted descriptive survey approach in collecting data from the respondents, a case study of the Teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school. The descriptive survey method was preferred because it ensures complete description of the situation, making sure that there is minimum bias in the collection of data and finding out the what, where and how of a phenomenon (Kothari, 2008).
Quantitative survey method was utilized to address the objective of the study to analyze the strategies adopted by the Teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school in globalizing its programs.
Sampling Size and Sampling Technique
According to Oso & Onen (2009), a sample is part of the target (or accessible) population that has been procedurally selected to represent it. The study used stratified random sampling as the study population was not homogeneous as it consisted of; Professors, Lecturers, and Administrators
The study targeted senior administrative and academic staff in the following departments
- Global Linkages office in continuing education
- Academic Registrars office
- Research, Production and Extension
- Board of Post graduate studies
- Faculties/Institutes offering programmes to foreign students
- Senior Administrative staff.
DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This Chapter outlines the distribution of the study population, research findings from the field information, interpretations of the data and discussions on the results.
The data that the researcher collected from the selected respondents was analyzed, classified, tabulated and finally presented through descriptive statistics such as, tables, pie charts and bar charts as indicated below.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter discusses the summary of research findings, conclusions and recommendations.
Summary of Research Findings
The objective of the study was to investigate the strategies adopted by the Teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school in globalizing its programs. The study also investigated the policies and challenges facing the impact of globalization in continuing education.
The study utilized data collected from randomly selected professors and administrative staff representing various departments and faculties of the Teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school which deals with globalization of programmes. There was also data from secondary sources such as university journals, policies and other publications. The respondents were mainly drawn from the college of Biological and Physical Sciences, College of Humanities and Social sciences and College of Health Sciences which was a representative sample of the faculties/departments offering programmes to foreign students.
The analysis of the data targeted globalization of programmes at the Teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school and presentation of the results was done through percentage distributions, bar graphs and pie charts. The findings revealed that six strategies were being adopted for the globalization of programmes. This were identified as; Review Curriculum to develop courses which can attract foreign students; Signing partnerships and linkages with foreign universities to market UON programmes globally; Promote publications in global journals; Benchmarking with the best practices regionally and globally; Aggressive marketing, review admission procedures and fees structures for foreign students and Improvement on infrastructure and accommodation for the foreign students. Overall, all the strategies were found significant in the adoption of globalization of the Teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school programmes.
The study adopted the Upsalla model to conceptualize the findings. The strategies adopted were used as independent variables whereas globalization of programmes became the dependent variable. This confirms globalization as a process of experimental learning and incremental commitments which leads to an evolutionary development in a foreign market.
The results further showed that there were policies and guidelines in place which supported globalization of Teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school programmes. This policies and policy framework include: Partnerships and linkages, Admission guidelines, quality assurance and even the Teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school strategic plan. These policies are instrumental in guiding the adoption of strategies for globalization of Teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school programmes.
The findings outlined a number of challenges. Facilitation and coordination of global projects is a challenge. The budget allocated for the programmes continues to be inadequate to cater for the expenses despite a slight increment of the budget. Accommodation for foreign students has always been a challenging issue. Challenge in delays in processing of the Nigeria pupils pass (KPP) at the immigration office. Students are forced to continue their stay in the country with expired visa which poses the risk of being arrested by the police and thus stress to the foreign students. Physical space facelift and staffing position is also a limiting factor.
Conclusion and Recommendations
The study found that the Centre for Global Programmes and Links is a facilitator in supporting, initiating, marketing, promoting and coordinating activities pertaining to Global Programmes and links. It is the primary coordinating point for all Global activities in the University. Representation on the Board covers the college, academic and administrative units of the University.
There are five categories of global students admitted in the UoN namely: Exchange student: a student who enjoys certain rights and privileges because the student’s university has entered into an agreement with the Teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school; Occasional Student: A student who has been admitted to a university and wishes to spend six to twelve months attending selected
courses at the Teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school; Regular student: A student who is admitted into a regular degree programme, is fee paying, and studies for a particular degree of the Teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school just like a local student; Research Associate: A student who is admitted for a specific period of time up to one year to conduct research; and Postgraduate student: Foreign students enrolling for postgraduate studies in a relevant department, faculty or institute.
In order to promote globalization and visibility of the Teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school the study recommends an increase in the number of global students‟ admitted each academic year. For the University to achieve that, there is need to increase resources and budget allocations targeting global programmes. The resources in question are; physical assets, finances and human capital. This will boost the CIPL to enhance capacity building to deliver superior value education and also enhance the university‟s competitiveness. This will increase the performance of the programmes and the general rating of the university globally.
One of the strengths of the Teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school is its strategic position at the centre of the central business district. The University can increase the existing networks, partnerships and linkages at the national, regional and global levels.. This will help place the university in the global arena and make its programmes more viable and vibrant.
Another way forward for globalizing of programmes is by creating collaborative teaching, research and training. This is by establishing viable university and industry linkages in the area of research and development and student‟s attachment. This could be achieved through the promotion of the university objectives in the global arena as a source of new and significant knowledge which can inform policy.
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