Agriculture Project Topics

The Impact of Irrigation in Okra Production in Buipe

The Impact of Irrigation in Okra Production in Buipe

The Impact of Irrigation in Okra Production in Buipe

Chapter One

Objectives of the study

Overall objective

The overall aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of irrigation in okra production in Buipe.

Specific objectives

The specific objectives of the study are to:

  1. Examine the impact of irrigation in okra production in Buipe
  2. Evaluate the performance of improvised irrigation systems in the production of okra
  3. To assess and ascertain its utility and suitability under different situations for production of okra
  4. Find out the optimum schedule of irrigation for maximum okra yield and water use efficiency



Origin and Geographic Distribution of okra

Okra plant or lady’s finger was previously included in the genus Moicus. Later it was designated to Abelmoschus, which is distinguished from the genus Hibicus. (Aladele et al 2008). Abelmoschus was subsequently proposed to be raised to the rank of distinct genus by Medilues in (1787). Okra originated somewhere around the Ethiopia and was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians by the 12th century BC. Its cultivation spread throughout Middle East and North Africa Tindall (1983), Lamount (1999). Okra is grown in many parts of the world, especially in tropical and subtropical countries Arapitses, (2007), Saiffellah and Rabbani, (2009). This crop can be grown as a large commercial farm or as a garden crop Rubatzky and Yamaguchi, (1997). Okra crop can be grown commercially in many countries such as India, Japan,  Turkey,  Iran,  Western Africa,  Yugoslavia,  Bangladesh,  Afghanistan,  Pakistan, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand, Brazil, Ethiopia, Cyprus and in the Southern United States.

(Purseylove, 1887). (Benjawan et al., 2007),(Ghurishi 2007). Okra is found all around the world from equatorial areas to Mediterians Sea which is considered as the center of diversity. The spread of the other species is the result of their introduction to Africa and America Qhiereshi (2007), Aladeye et al., (2008). There are two hypotheses concerning the geographical origin of A. esculentus. Some scientist argue that one putative ancestors (A. tuberculatus) is native from Northern India, suggesting that the species originated from this geographical area on the bases of ancient cultivation in East Africa and the presence of the other putative ancestor (A. ficulneous) other suggest that the area of domestication is Ethiopia or North Egypt, but no definite proof is available today Department of Biotechnology, (2007). Abelmoschus species occurs in the world including as A. moschus, A. manihot, A. esculentus, A. tuberculatus, A. filculneous, A. Crinilus, and A. angulosus Chorrier (1984). The three cultivation species which are sometimes found in all tropical, subtropical and warm temperature regions of the world. The species A. moschus has a wide geographical distribution in India, Southern China, Indonesia, Papcia, New Guinea, Australia, Central and West Africa. The species A. manihot subs P. Manihot is cultivated mainly in the East Asia, but also in the India sub-continent and Northern Australia. It is less frequently found in America and tropical Africa Cheva Lier (1940). The wild species A. tuberculatus related to A. esculentus, is endemic to the medium altitudes hilly areas in India IBPGR, (1991). The wild species A. ficulnoues is found in a vast geographical area stretching from Africa to Asia and Australia. It flourishes in tropical’s area of low altitude with a long dry season, i.e. desert regions of Sahalian Africa (Niger) Madagascar, East Africa, India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Northern Australia Lamount (1999). The two wild species A. crinitus and A. angulosus are exclusively Asian origin. There are differentiated by their ecology. A crinitus grows at low altitude in regions with a marked dry season, being (China, India, Pakistan and Philippines). A. angulosus grows at altitude between 750 and 2000m in Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia Charrier (1984) and IBPGR (1991).

 Distribution And Utilization

Okra (Abelmoschus spp. (L.) Moench) is a member of the family Malvaceae. The crop is native to Africa (ECHO, 2003; Purseglove, 1987; Kochhar, 1986). It originated somewhere around Ethiopia, and was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians by the 12th century BC. Its cultivation spread throughout Middle East and North Africa (Lamont 1999; Tindall 1983). The Nile Basin seems to have been the route by which this crop spread through North Africa, the Eastern Mediterranean, Asia, and to India. Okra reached the new world by the way of Brazil and Dutch Guinea. African slaves brought okra to North America by way of New Orleans (Bish et al., 1995 and Hamon et al., 1990). The crop is grown in many parts of the world, especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries (Kumar et al., 2010; Saifullah and Rabbani 2009; Arapitsas 2008). It is grown on a large scale in Africa, especially in Nigeria, Egypt, Ghana and Sudan, (Joshi et al., 1974). It is also very important in other tropical areas including Asia, Central and South America (FAOSTAT, 2008; Joshi et al., 1974).

There are a number of species, both wild and cultivated. Some of these are A. esculentus, A. caillei, A. moschatus, A. manihot, A. ficulneus and A. tetraphyllus. Two main species in the genus Abelmoschus are cultivated; A. manihot L. and A. moschatus L. (Siemonsma, 1991 and Stevels, 1988).




Study Area

The experiment was conducted during the year 2020 – 2021 in Buipe the capital of Central Gonja District, north Ghana, Buipe is a small town and is the capital of Central Gonja District, a district in the Savannah Region of north Ghana. Because of the proximity of limestone deposits, Buipe is the proposed location of a cement works. The area is located around Latitude 6˚ N and Longitude 16˚ E and is a low relief with elevation about 185 m above the sea level which is enveloped by rocky and hilly outcrops. Geologically, the region lies entirely within the pre-Cambrian basement complex rock group, which underlies much of Savannah Region of northern Ghana. The temperature of this area is almost uniform throughout the year; with little deviation from the mean annual temperature of 270oC. The hottest period is between February and March with a temperature between 280oC and 290oC respectively while the coolest period is June with the temperature of 250oC. The mean annual total rainfall is 1367 mm with a low coefficient variation of about 10%. Rainfall is highly seasonal with well-marked wet and dry season. The wet season lasts from April to October, with a break in August.

Treatments and Experimental Plot Layout

The ruggedness of the topography of the experimental plot is characterized by slopes, valleys, and some planes at the suburbs of the area which are used for agricultural purposes. The area is chosen for its suitable soil structure, texture, water retention capacity, loamy fertile soil, nearness to the water source (well) and availability of power supply to operate the electric water pump. To characterize the soil at the experimental plot, physicochemical analysis of soil sample from 0-30 cm depth was carried out and presented in Table 1. Land preparation involved the use of a tractor for ploughing and harrowing. The levelling was done manually by using simple farm implements to make it suitable for the undisturbed, unobstructed free flow of water and good crop management. The levelling of the experimental plot was done to avoid stagnate of water in the area of the depression whereas higher parts of the area may lack necessary water. This may eventually result in uneven water distribution, uneven crop emergence and uneven early growth, uneven fertilizer distribution and possibly unwanted weeds. The total experimental plot of 150 m by 400 m was used and the area was divided into three experimental plots.



 Crop Water Requirement and Water Use Efficient

Climatic  data  and  Reference  Crop Evapotranspiration (ET) is shown in Table 2. The monthly mean reference of crop evapotranspiration (ETC) was 6.77 mm/day and the water consumption is about 8 mm/day for a full-grown cup Sorapong B, 2012.




The hydraulic performance of irrigation system was evaluated and the performance  of the system in terms of average uniformity coefficient, field emission uniformity, absolute emission uniformity and  manufacturing coefficient of variation was within the acceptable limit. Irrigation method plays a  significant role in okra production by maxima land utilization and as well as water in the production of okra. The study revealed better plant growth, high water use efficiency and enhancement in the yield under drip irrigation. The drip irrigation system is more economical and it could be used in places and periods of water scarcity for the production of okra throughout the year by small, medium and large scale farmers. The drip irrigation system also has the tendency to make a large quantity of water available to the plants gradually such that there will be no runoff and deep percolation. Although drip irrigation can be tedious in its installation as compared to another irrigation method it saves time, energy, labour and water during the process of water supply to plants after the drip lines have been laid out. The drip kit irrigation is highly affordable for subsistence farming for the sustainability of livelihood.

Also, the effects of irrigation schedule gave insignificant mean differences among the yield and attributes evaluated which includes fruit length, fruit diameter, number of branches, number of fruits, fruit weight (kg/m2). On the contrary, significant differences were recorded for the effect of mulching methods on the yield and yield components of okra as there were significant mean differences for fruit length, number of branches, number of fruits and fruit weight per hectare. Fruit diameter recorded insignificant mean differences. Among all the fruit yield and yield components, daily irrigation and no mulch gave the highest values.


This research is recommended for further trials by other researchers to generate more reliable information.


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