The Impact of Parents Socio-Economic Status on the Academic Performance of Secondary School Biology Student
Purpose Of The Study
The aim of this research work is to determine the impact of parent’s socio-economic background on student academic performance in secondary school.
Specifically the study is to find out:
- To find the effect of socio-economic status of biology students on their academic performance in Makurdi, L.G.A of Benue State.
- To determine the extent to which parental occupation affect the academic performance of biology student.
- To determine the impact of parents educational background on student academic performance in biology in Makurdi L.G.A of Benue State.
- To find solution to impact of socio-economic background on students academic performance.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Our focus in this chapter is to critically examine relevant literatures that would assist in explaining the research problem and furthermore recognize the efforts of scholars who had previously contributed immensely to similar research. The chapter intends to deepen the understanding of the study and close the perceived gaps.
Precisely, the chapter will be considered in three sub-headings:
- Conceptual Framework
- Theoretical Framework
- Chapter Summary
PARENTAL SOCIO ECONOMIC STATUS (SES)
Parental socio-economic status (SES) has consistently been found to be an important determinant of the timing of entry into a first co-residential union (either unmarried cohabitation or marriage). Most studies have found that young adults from low-SES families enter their first co-residential union earlier than those from a high-SES background (e.g. Axinn and Thornton, 1992; South, 2001; Wiik, 2009). People who enter a union at an early age face potential negative consequences for their subsequent life course, such as a higher risk of dissolving the union (Berrington and Diamond, 1999). It is important to examine how socio-economic origin influences the timing of first union. Most studies on the link between parental SES and first-union timing have examined this within a single country, but arguments derived from Second Demographic Transition (SDT) theory suggest that the strength of this link could vary across countries. SDT theory posits that demographic changes result from shifts in value orientations in Western countries, from solidarity and conformity to autonomy, self-reliance, and individual freedom (Lesthaeghe and van de Kaa, 1986; Sobotka, 2008; Lesthaeghe, 2010). Due to this process of individualization, socializing institutions, such as the church and family, have lost some of their functions. If this is the case, it can be expected that the influence of parental status on the demographic behaviour of their children is weaker in societies that are more advanced in the SDT (Sobotka, 2008). No cross-country studies have yet examined the link between parental SES and first-union timing. Therefore, the key contribution of this study is to examine to what extent the effect of parental SES on the timing of first co-residential union varies across European countries and how this cross-national variation can be explained. We analyse data on 25 European countries from Round 3 of the European Social Survey (ESS) (ESS, 2006). This study improves our understanding of cross-national variation by examining the role of three country-level SDT indicators that might moderate the strength of the link between parental SES and union formation: age norms of leaving the parental home, prevalence of cohabitation, and religiosity. Most studies on the link between parental SES and union formation analysed the timing of entry into a first marriage (e.g. Michael and Tuma, 1985; Blossfeld and Huinink, 1991; Axinn and Thornton, 1992), while more recent studies considered both first marriage and first cohabitation (Hoem and Kostova, 2008; Wiik, 2009; Cavanagh, 2011). In many countries that are advanced in the SDT, cohabitation has replaced marriage as the dominant manner of entering a union, which makes it important to analyse both union types (Kiernan, 2001). Moreover, it is possible that parental SES has a different impact on these two union types. Because cohabitation is often a more informal living arrangement with lower costs of entering and exiting than marriage, parents may be less inclined to influence the timing of entry into cohabitation than into marriage (Wiik, 2009). If so, one could expect a stronger effect of parental SES on entry into a first co-residential union if this union is a marriage than if it is a cohabitation. Thus, we also examine how parental status is related to entry into cohabitation versus marriage as first union, and how this relationship varies across countries. Moreover, in understanding the link between parental SES and first-union timing, it is also important to know the extent to which this link is mediated by young adults’ own educational attainment and enrolment. Higher-SES parents tend to invest more in their children’s educational career than lower-SES parents, and extended education is known to delay entry into a union (Blossfeld and Huinink, 1991; Liefbroer and Corijn, 1999)
AREA OF STUDY
Makurdi, Benue State capital was established in the early twenties and gained prominence in 1927 when it became the headquarters of the then Benue Province. Being a river port, it attracted the establishment of trading depots by companies such as UAC and John Holt Limited. Its commercial status was further enhanced when the Railway Bridge was completed and opened in 1932. In 1976, the town became the capital of Benue State.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitute of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried out to examine the impact of parents socio-economic status on the academic performance of secondary school biology students using selected schools in the Makordi Local Government Area of Benue State as case study. Ten secondary schools were selected for this study, the selected schools include;
1. Air force secondary school,
2. Command secondary school,
3. Community secondary school,
4. Vaatia college,
5. Kings model college,
6. Methodist high school,
7. Naka secondary school,
8. Youth chapel all saints secondary school,
9. Spring international college,
10. Unique schools.
Hence the teachers and students of the selected school form the population of the study.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of two hundred (200) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only one hundred and fifty (150) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 150 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
In this study, our focus was to examine the the impact of parents socio economic status on the academic performance of secondary school biology students using 10 selected secondary schools in makurdi local government area in Benue state as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting effect of socio-economic status of biology students on their academic performance, the extent to which parental occupation affect the academic performance of biology student, impact of parents educational background on student academic performance in biology, find solution to impact of socio-economic background on students academic performance.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from teachers and students of the selected secondary schools.
Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:
- Socio-economic status influences biology students on their academic performance.
- Parental occupation affect the academic performance of biology student.
- Parents educational background affects student academic performance in biology.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- Government at all levels should give adequate attention to school by equipping them with required learning facilities so that students from poor background can also acquire a qualitative education like their counter parts from well to do families.
- Again biology teachers were advised to ensure uniformity in their dealing with the students, their background notwithstanding, so as to carry students from both low socio-economic status and high socio-economic status along.
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