The Impact of Teachers’ Welfare Package on Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in Orhionmwon Local Government Area of Edo State
Purpose of Study
The purpose of the study is to analyze the welfare package on the job satisfaction usually if teachers are motivated due to good teacher’s welfare packages, the aspiration, objectives and goals of the present 6-3-3-4 system of education would be met, there would be an attraction of qualified and enthusiastic teachers that would facilitate a successful implementation of the nation’s 6-3-3-4 system of education.
This chapter presents a review of related literature on teacher’s welfare package on job satisfaction. Welfare packages could mean those packages that would enhance commitment to satisfy employees to achieve goals of institutions.
The Dictionary of Contemporary English has defined satisfaction as contentment and pleasure. Satisfaction has also been defined as fulfillment of a need desire.
The past theories and work would help us in arriving at conclusions in this project work. To this end, the related literature is divided into the following sections”
- Theoretical Framework
- Theories of Motivation
- Content Theories of Motivation
- Process Theories of Motivation
- Reinforcement Theory
- Equity Theory
- Function of Welfare Packages
- The National Joint Negotiating Council for Teachers
- The Asabia Committee, 1967.
- The Udoji Committee
- Agitation by the Nigerian Union of Teachers (NUT), 1983
- Procedures on Retirement and other exits in the Teaching Service
- Concepts and Definitions on Job Satisfaction
- Effect of Welfare Practice on Job Satisfaction
- Summary of Review of Literature
According to Mathis and Jackson (2000) and Eitt (1999) refer to welfare package as desire to direct one’s behavior towards goal. Hay and Mickat (1997) sees welfare package as the complex forces of drives needs, and other mechanism that start and maintain voluntary activity directed towards the achievement of personal goals. These definitions involve certain “forces acting on or within a person (to initiate and direct behavior).
It is however, pertinent to note that most of the ideas derived from propounded definitions help to the formation of policies affecting teacher’s welfare services.
Theories of Motivation
There are three categories of theories of motivation: The content theories of motivation, the process theories of motivation and integrative approaches of motivation.
The Content Theories of Motivation
According to Abraham Maslow’s need of hierarchy 1945, he specified the needs that would motivate people and their behaviours. Abraham Maslow (1945) demonstrates that motivation is associated with a clinical psychology by profession, his theory is the one most widely used in the study of motivation. Motivation on the other hand is referred to as welfare package which are based on the assumption that these needs are in successive hierarchy of needs from physiological, safety, social esteem and self-actualization.
The physiological needs consists of the basic biological needs of the human body, it includes the need for food, water, air, sexual gratification and other primary needs such as shelter, clothing and so on. The author emphasized that when physiological needs are unsatisfied, no other needs will serve as a basis for motivation.
Safety needs according to the author, are the next need that arise after the basic physiological needs, have been satisfied. Safety needs imply security, absence of pain and illness and security of job. The school system usually provides safety needs in the form of fringe benefits, retirement, pension schemes, insurance benefits, medical or health services. The author seems to hold that social needs come when after physiological and safety needs have been met, social needs come in form of association, love, affection and friendship.
Donnelly Jr. (1994), Hellriegel and Slocum Jr. (1996) have postulated that without the satisfaction of this needs mental health of the employee, may be affected and also high absenteeism rates, poor performance, low job satisfaction would occur.
The fourth level of need in Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of need are esteem needs, they comprise of the individual wanting to be important, and the yearnings for recognition. Esteem need includes the need for self-confidence, for independence, for achievement, for competence and for knowledge. It goes further to explain the need for ones status, for recognition, for independence, for appreciation and the deserved respect of ones fellows.
According to Hellriegel and Slocum Jr.(1996), they point out that the individual wants to be perceived as competent and able. He is usually concerned about the achievement, prestige, status, and promotion opportunities, that others will provide as recognition of competence and capabilities.
The fulfillment of these needs leads to the satisfaction of ego needs in a school setting. The highest level of need in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs framework is the one of self-actualization needs, encompasses the person’s ability to solve problems, increased spontaneity, increased detachment and a desire for privacy and the like. Amongst the needs in this theory is the existence needs, this need includes Maslow’s physiological needs such as hunger and thirst, others include pay, fringe benefits and a pleasant working environment as provided for in a work place.
The other need in this theory is the relatedness needs, they include Maslow’s social and esteem categories. They infer the needs of individuals to maintain interpersonal relationship with those who are important to them.
Relatedness needs are satisfied by the mutual sharing of thoughts and feelings with those significant others. The growth needs of this theory explains the desires to be self-confident, productive and creative, this is the utilization of one potential and continued personal development.
This chapter dealt with the techniques that were used to obtain data in studying the impact of teacher’s welfare package on job satisfaction in Orhionmwon Local Government Area of Edo State.
The descriptive research method was used in carrying out this study. Descriptive research involves data collection so as to answer questions concerning the problem of the teacher’s welfare package on job satisfaction in Orhionmwon Local Government Area of Edo State.
The population used for this study included all the secondary schools and teachers in the eight secondary schools in Orhionmwon Local Government Area of Edo State.
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter dealt with the analysis and interpretation of data collected from the respondents.
The chapter consisted of two sections. Section A was testing of hypotheses and Section B was discussion of findings as follows:
Hypothesis 1: Welfare package does not significantly have influence on teachers’ job satisfaction.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter dealt with the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations.
Summary of Findings
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of teacher’s welfare package on teacher job satisfaction in secondary school in Orhionmwon Local Government Area of Edo State. Drawing from the findings:
- Welfare package significantly have influence on teachers’ job satisfaction.
- There is no gender disparity on teachers’ job satisfaction.
- The attitude of principal does not have influence on teacher’s job satisfaction.
- Government policies do not significantly have influence on teacher’s job satisfaction.
Based on the findings in the research, the researcher came to the conclusion that welfare package has influence on teacher’s job satisfaction.
Based on the findings and the conclusion above, the researcher was led to proffer the following recommendations:
- Members of an organization should be given job satisfaction by increasing their welfare package.
- Government policies should be improved on in order to motivate best performance of the teacher in teaching and learning process.
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