Education Project Topics

The Influence of Audio Visual Teaching Materials on Learning in Pre-primary Schools

The Influence of Audio Visual Teaching Materials on Learning in Pre-primary Schools
The Influence of Audio Visual Teaching Materials on Learning in Pre-primary Schools
Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study have been formulated based on cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of learning objectives as follows:-

  1. Find out the extent to which comprehension of pupils taught social studies using audio-visual aids differs from those taught using chalk and talk teaching process.
  2. Find out the extent to which cooperation of   social studies using audio-visual aids differs from those taught using chalk and talk teaching processing
  3. Find out the extent to which demonstrations of pupils taught social studies using audio-visual aids differs from those taught using chalk and talk teaching process.




This chapter reviewed materials and other works related to the use of audio- visual aids
Theoretical frame work

Almost every educational reformer has expressed deep concern over the excessive use of words that carry the shadow of meaning but not the substance. Several educationists have struggled to make education realistic. One of such educationist was Dale, E. (1969) who became the chief exponent of audio-visual aids in teaching. He was the originator of the „cone of experience‟. The diagram presented in his book “audio- visual method in teaching.”All the learning experiences can be utilized for classroom teaching. Edger Dale presented all the learning experiences in his pictorial device “pinnacle form” which he called the „cone of experience‟ if we group the pinnacle from its based, we find that every aid has been arranged in the order of increasing abstractness or decreasing directness. It maybe stated that the „cone‟ classifies the audio-visual aids according to their effectiveness in communication which means the aids at the base of the cone as “most effective” and relative effect gradually decreases in the cone. Al the pinnacle of the cone, the direct, purposeful and verbal experiences are represented. The experiences include in the cone were as follows:-

  1. Direct, purposeful experience that is seen, handled, tasted, felt, touched and smelt, the experience that is grained through the senses. These experiences are not only direct but are also purposeful. Purposeful means that the experiences are active with a purpose. “An ounce of experience is better than a tone of theory, simply because it is only an experience that any theory has vital and verifiable significance”.
  2. Contrived experience is like a working model, which is an editing of reality differs from the original either in size or in complexity. The simplification of the real object becomes necessary when the real thing cannot be perceived directly. The real object may be too big or too minute, may be obscured or confused or concealed. In such circumstances, the limitation is preferred for better and easier understanding. The „cone‟ proposed by Edgar Dale was the earliest attempt to classify the audio-visual aids according to their effectiveness in communicating ideas. The cone classifies sensory aids in terms of greater or less concreteness and abstractness as learning experiences. Projected aids occupy a top position and are considered to be more effective in teaching than the non projected aids. Figure. 2.2.1 depicts a practical cone classifying deferent aids with reference to their relative effectiveness.





This chapter deals with the methods and procedures used in collection and analyzing the data for the research. The purpose of this study is centre on the effect of Audio-visual instructional materials on pupils` academic achievement in junior secondary school social studies` education in Jama`are and Katagum Local Government Areas of Bauchi State.

Research Design

The research design adopted for this study was quasi-experimental design, which involved treatment group and control group. It was deemed suitable for the study  because it gives room for comparison of academic achievement of pupils in both treatment group and control group. The study was conducted during third term of the 2013-2014 academic sessions; Six weeks were used for the study. Two junior secondary schools were considered to be treatment group and another two junior secondary schools were taken to be control group. The diagram below shows sample-post test design used for the study.



This chapter provides detail information, data analysis and discussions of research results carried out on effect of the use of audio-visual on student’s academic achievement in social studies in junior secondary school in Bauchi State.




This chapter presents the summary and conclusion of the results relating to the research questions postulated and hypotheses tested. It also gives general recommendations as to how the findings of the research can enhance academic achievement and make suggestions for further research.


The study investigated the effect of the use of audio-visual aids on student’s academic achievement in social studies in junior secondary schools. It focused on the influence of variables such as comprehension and demonstration and cooperation on academic achievement of pupils taught social studies using audio-visual aids. In the course of the work, three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The data for the study was collected through achievement tests, interview and observation. On the whole four schools were purposively selected. Two schools from Jama are Local Government and another two schools from Katagum Local Government of Bauchi State. Forty (40) pupils were sampled from each school for the study. The method for data analysis in this study was descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, mean, standard deviation and simple percentage and inferential statistics such as Z-test and U-test. Generally, the result of the analysis showed that the use audio-visual aids have significant impact on pupils‟ academic achievement in social studies in junior secondary schools.


From the study conducted the use of audio-visual aids seemed to be an innovation and radical approach in teaching social studies because most of the social studies teachers in the schools have never used any audio-visualaids in their classes due to non-availability of the materials where the materials are available the teachers lack the techniques in using them during teaching-learning processes. Lack or inadequate source of power is a great hindrance to effective use of these instructional materials in most of the schools.

It is evident from the study, that some of the teachers handle social studies were teachers of Geography, History, Economics or Government. Looking at the importance of the subject there some concepts or topics in the syllabus which those that are not experts cannot understand, not to talk of taking the pains in providing audio-visual aids. The way an expert in social studies presents a lesson is quite different from the way a geography teacher presents. Some pupils get confused or distorted and lack of knowledge of what were audio-visual aids as they have never seen any one before. However, what were commonly seen or known were chalk boards, text books, maps, pictures among others.

It was in view of this, that the study hoped to make certain recommendations and suggestions to remedy the situation, if social studies is to enjoy its status among the subjects in the curriculum, and if it is to enjoy the support and interest of the pupils.


In the light of the findings in this study, the following recommendations are made

  • There is ardent need for government and state holders to provide audio-visual aids in the schools to facilitate teaching-learning process.
  • There is compelling need to secure a stable source of power in the schools to ensure sustainable use the instructional materials particularly audio-visualaids.
  • The school‟s management and parent‟s teacher‟s association (PTA) should look into the possibility of repairing broken down instructional materials (audio- visual aids) in the schools with a view to reactivate them.
  • There is the need to review the NCE curriculum for social studies to incorporate a course that entails techniques of operating audio-visual aids so as to train prospective social studies teachers how to use the materials effectively.
  • There is the immediate need for ministry of education to organize seminars, conferences and workshops to sensitize social studies teachers on how to use audio-visual aids in teaching-learning process.


  • Abolade, A.O. (2004). An Introduction to Research Method in Education and Social Sciences. Johns-Lad publishing limited, Lagos, Nigeria, pp.360-390.
  • Adale, I.A. (1991). Teachers‟ Education Series: Basic Instructional Technology a (hand book). Unpublished Thesis. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
  • Agu, A.O. and Hamad, A.K. (2005). The influence of Home Environment on the Academic Performance of Secondary School Girls in Sabon Gari Local Government. Zanzibar Journal of Education Management, 3,(2): 69-86.
  • Aguokogbuo, C.M. (2000). Curriculum Development and Implementation for Africa.
  • Mike social press, Nsukka, Nigeria, pp.122-125.
  • Ajagun, G.A. (2003). The development of I.C.T. Skills Through the National Computer Education of Primary Schools. In: Akale, M.A.G.(Ed) Information and Communication
  • Technology. Mike social press, NSukka. Nigeria. pp.328-334.
  • Akudolu. L.R. (2000). Appropriate Information Curriculum for Basic Education. Journal of Primary Education, 5 (2): 43-52.
  • Amuda, A.B and Subair, J.O. (2010). The effect of Teaching Aids in the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in Junior Secondary Schools. Unpublishe N.C.E. Thesis. Kwara State College of Education, Ilorin, Nigeria.
  • Awotua-Efebo, E.B. (2006). Effective Teachings: Principles and Practice. Matthomse press Ltd, port Harcourt, Nigeria, pp. 272-284.
  • Aze, J. (2009). Instructional Technology. Unpublished P.G. note. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
  • Abolade, A.A. (2004). Overview and management of A.V. Media and resource centres in Nigeria. (Paper presented at ARMTI) for communication specialists. Ilorin: October 22nd 2004.
  • Aguokogbuo, C.M. (2000). Curriculum Development and implementation for Africa.
  • Nsukka: mike social press, Nigeria, pp. 122-125
  • Awoltua-Efebo E.B.(1999). Effective teaching: principles and practice. Port-Harcourt: paragraphics.
  • Brown, J.W. (2007). Visual Instruction Technology Media and Metho megraw- Hill book co, New York, America.
  • Chindo, A.A. (2011). Effect of Audio-Visual Instructional Materials on Junior Secondary School pupils Academic Performance in Social Studies in
  • Kwar State. Nigeria Journal Education Studies and Research, 7(1):201-206.
  • David, S.M. (2008). Impact of Audio-Visual Aids on pupils‟ Performance in Geography in Senior Secondary Schools in Imo State. Unpublished M.Ed. thesis,Lagos University Lagos, Nigeria.
WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Our customer support team is here to answer your questions. Ask us anything!