Guidance Counseling Project Topics

The Influence of Guidance and Counseling Services on Career Choices of Secondary School Students

The Influence of Guidance and Counseling Services on Career Choices of Secondary School Students

The Influence of Guidance and Counseling Services on Career Choices of Secondary School Students

Chapter One

Objectives of the Study

The broad objectives of this study is to investigate into the impact of access to guidance and counseling on career choice in the area of study. The specific objectives include:

  1. To justify the effectiveness or other wise of counseling services in schools under review,
  2. To find out the roles of guidance and counseling to the students’ academic performance of then schools under review
  3. To identify the career choice of the students in secondary schools of the study area.
  4. To investigate the effects of career choice on the future of the secondary school students in the area under review.
  5. To explore the factors influencing the career choice of secondary school students in Sokoto metropolis




Many academics have used the words “counseling” and “guidance” interchangeably or separately. As a result, the terms counseling for guidance and guidance for counseling were frequently used interchangeably in texts. The experts generally agree that the term “guidance” refers to all of the supportive services that fall under the overall umbrella of community and educational services.

In plain English, guidance refers to the provision of one-on-one assistance. It is intended to help a person make decisions about his or her future, including what to do, how to best achieve his or her goals, and how to handle problems that may emerge. According to Stone (1981), guidance is the process of aiding a person, oneself, and one’s environment. Oladele (1987) also aims to help the receiver develop his independence and capacity for responsibility.

On the other hand, Makinde (1987) defined counseling as a service meant to assist a person in analyzing himself in light of any gaps in his or her abilities, accomplishments, interests, or means of adjusting to a new course of action.

According to Ipaye (1983), counseling is a way to help a person use their psychological resources by emphasizing their positive development strengths and their personality, conduct, and emotional resources that they could use.

Conceptual Framework

 Concept of Career

A professional decision cannot be compared to selecting an orange from a basket. With very few exceptions, Weiler (1997) asserts that “Successful careers seldom happen by chance” and that individuals who successfully pursue their professional goals do so by defining their goals, creating plans and schedules to achieve those goals, and taking personal responsibility for carrying out and adhering to those plans.

These people regularly assess their progress, revise their plans when intended outcomes are not being obtained, and persist despite several setbacks until goals are attained.

Numerous academics have defined choice and career in their own unique ways, and some have gone farther to emphasize the significance and goals of choosing a better career. Career, according to the dictionary, is a means of supporting oneself through a career of opportunities.

Many people find it challenging to make decisions since they lack assistance and counseling and must do so on their own. Many studies have been conducted based on the decisive elements influencing students’ job choices.

As diverse as the factors mentioned in the first chapter, other viewpoints have been stated on this subject. But, there is no denying that there are numerous elements, including hereditary factors (which are present in the child himself) and environmental factors, that contribute to a child’s development of backwardness or retardation VIZ (from the environment where the child grew up).

Guidance and Counselling

In the 1900s, Europe and the United States of America introduced formal guidance and counseling to the rest of the world. By 1911, an organized, comprehensive guidance program was in place in the United States of America and it tailored to the requirements of students. The focus was on lowering exam anxiety and increasing knowledge of the workplace, location of employment, and vocational information (Makinde ,1984). Understanding the roles of school guidance and counseling is crucial, according to Bor, Landy, Gill, and Bruce (2002) who stated that attitudes toward guidance and counseling have changed quickly.

According to Kilonzo (1984), the idea of guidance and counseling was introduced to Nigeria’s educational system in the late 1960s and formally adopted by the Ministry of Education in 1971. Gichinga (1995) made the accurate observation that formal guidance and counseling are now more needed than ever in African nations. The Nigerian government established a number of education commissions to pursue official guidance, and these commissions have produced reports on the government’s guidance and counseling policies.

A number of Nigerians who were sent abroad to pursue their education and receive training in a variety of professions were given the opportunity by the Government of Nigeria (G.O.K.) in 1964. This commission issued suggestions about guidance and counseling, including making sure that kids pursue educational and training programs best suited to their requirements and receiving assistance on possible occupations and employment opportunities. During this time, career-focused guidance was the goal. According to Angaha (1987), the Nigerian government acknowledges the importance of providing assistance and counseling to every student in Nigerian schools, and MOE has taken efforts to ensure that a functional and effective program is put into place as a policy in all educational institutions.





This chapter, the areas of research design, sample and sampling techniques population of the study, instrumentation, validity of the instrument, and reliability of the instrument, administration of the instrument and method of data analysis were discussed.

Research Design 

In conducting this research, a questionnaire has been designed to help the researchers acquire the needed information. The questionnaire has section A, B, C, and D, section ‘A’ contains students information, section ‘B’ contains subjects offered in the schools, while section ‘D’ contains career choice and aspiration of students.

Population of the Study

The population of this study is secondary school in Sokoto metropolis.




In this chapter, the result of the investigations are presented. The data collected was analyzed using the frequency distribution table and simple percentage.




This chapter presents the conclusions and recommendations of the findings for the research.


This research is derided into five chapter, chapter one contain background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance of the study, scope and delimitation.

Chapter is review of relate literature where we look at the various works done by other scholars which are directly or indirectly related to this work.

Chapter three is research methodology which presents populations of the study, sample and sampling techniques, method of data collection, reliability of the instrument, validity of the instrument and administration of the instrument.

Chapter four contains presentation and analysis of data, summary of the major findings and discussion of findings.

Chapter five entails summary, conclusion and recommendation.


It has been established in this study that science and medical professions were more sought careers by the students. In  this aspect, even the female students are not left out at all. There is no much differences between careers sought for, by female and male students. This development as earlier pointed out is a welcomed one especially in the area where this study had been conducted. It was also observed that most of the student choose their careers base on personal interest and ability.

Furthermore, students aspire for careers different for that of their parents which means that with the necessary from parents, school authority, society, and government students will do well in their chosen career.

The researchers have seen a good prospect for student in senior secondary schools in the area of job acquisition.


As a country Nigeria is blessed with children that possesses diverse ability .it is the responsibility of the country to harness these talents. One of the ways of harnessing these talents is through qualitative education because no nation can rise above the quality and strength of it is educational system, great economy demands great education systems. It is in the realization of these needs that the following suggestion and recommendations are made.

  1. Students shall be properly guided in making the right careers choice by the authorities concerned. Qualified teachers should be employed to teach the students in other for them to make their dreams a reality .
  2. More female students should be encouraged to aspire for careers in medical profession especially in the northern Nigeria. this is very important because the female gender will be more disposed and comfortable to confide her problems in a female doctor or nurse
  3. Selection of students to read\study science subject shall be based on merit and not gender.
  4. The government, school authority and the other stakeholders should provide funds to adequately equipped the existing laboratories.
  5. The confidence reposed on schools by parents can be reinforced by the improvement of guidance and counseling activities through:
    1. Effective and functional guidance and counseling unit in the school
    2. Improved Incentives to career masters in terms of guidance, personal welfare, imposed physical working condition, constant supply of information materials, related to career in order to broaden the search for career opportunities and to allow the guidance masters to guide the student honestly.
    3. Sponsoring for in-service training and workshop should made to guidance and counseling masters to broaden their knowledge of new career opportunities in the society.
    4. school management should organized various guidance and counseling activities in the schools, resource persons shall be made to give lectures in various profession especially to final year students.
    5. Parents should cooperate with the school and guidance teachers who are acquainted with the children’s’ performance and capabilities to assist them to select appropriate career without gender bias.
    6. School shall supervise these students and ensure that relevant subjects are taught in schools without gender inequality.
    7. The perception of existing domination of science and the related careers by males should be discarded from the mind of the female students, this is very important to female student indigene of sokoto metropolis and the state at large as it will make them more ready for the competition.


  • Achebe, C.C. (1982), Assessing the Vocational Maturity of Students east in Central states of Nigeria: Enugu hilltop press ltd. Pp.45.
  • Bamgbaiye (2000) NCE Lecture Note on Guidance and Counseling, S.S.C.O.E Sokoto
  • Carew (1985) Guidance Services in Adult Education. University press, Lagos PP 71
  • Dobson (1974) The Role of Follow-up in Guidance Services, a Paper presented at B.UK
  • Dobson, J.S. Ewens, W.P. & SCALS J.M (1974). Career Guidance a System Approach. Kendal press Lagos p. 587. 588
  • Ezekwesil, O.(2006) Obasanjo Reforms to Education Sector. N.E.R.D.C. Lagos.
  • Fafunwa, A.B.(1974). History of Education In Nigeria, London George Allen and Unwin ltd pp.68
  • Federal Republic of Nigeria (1997) National Policy on Education, National Education Research Development Council (N.E.R.D.C.) Lagos
  • Harr, E.L. and Grammar, S.H.(1972)Vocational Guidance and Career  Development in the Schools Towards, a system Approach. Boston Houghton Mifflin company pp.16
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