This study looked at how students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Uyo was affected by their home and school environments. It started off by exposing the reader to the broad impact that the family and school environments have on secondary school children’ academic achievement. The study also highlighted the many facets of the home and school settings and their impact on the students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Nigeria. It further clarified the notions of home and school environments and student academic performance. In order to foster their children’s psychological and physical development, which would improve their learning development in school, parents were advised, among other things, to practice effective parenting.
This would involve creating a happy home environment. Additionally, school administrators should adopt a flexible, democratic style of leadership, and the physical environment of the school should be well-planned, attractively built, and painted to appeal to the aesthetic values of the students. This includes providing adequate ventilation and lighting in the classroom, among other things. The study’s implications and conclusions were drawn growth that would improve their academic progress in the classroom.
Chapter One Background of Study
Education is the culmination of all procedures that allow a child, adolescent, or adult to acquire the skills, attitudes, and other facets of constructive values-based conduct. The result of an effective teaching and learning process, as well as the efforts of the teacher, the school, the students, the parents, and their various home environments, is quality education (Elujekwute, 2019). The issue of the learning environment and students’ academic performance is becoming more and more important due to the declining quality of the labor force and the detrimental effects this will have on Nigeria’s future generations. Lawal (2013) asserts that there is a connection between education and nation-building. According to Hassan (2013), secondary education is essential for the growth and development of human capital. In other words, secondary school shapes and creates the person who later advances society, making it a tool for national progress. Secondary schools are crucial because they attract students to tertiary institutions. Therefore, the purpose of secondary school is to create the groundwork for further higher-level studies. Obem (2015) notes that 93% of secondary school graduates in any given year do not meet the requirements for entrance to a higher institution for university study. This is because, according to Samase (2015), just 20% of candidates in Nigeria’s National Examination Council (NECO) and West African Examination Council (WAEC) examinations pass with a passing grade, which is below average performance for thousands of pupils. In addition to the failure rate, secondary schools are also being criticized for failing to produce quality pupils, which is the intended outcome. Numerous studies have identified a number of variables that significantly affect pupils’ performance on external exams.
Teachers, students, and the learning process are all impacted in different ways by the physical attributes of the home and school. Teaching and learning are challenging, according to Jihina (2013), because of poor lighting, noise, uncomfortable classroom conditions, and variable temperatures. Poor upkeep and inadequate ventilation systems cause kids’ and teachers’ health problems, which have a negative impact on both performance and absenteeism rates.
Chapter Two Literature Review
The term home environment is a place where students live with their parents or guardians and it is a place where they are groomed. It is a place where the students begin to learn the norms and values of the society in which they find themselves. The family is a social unit in any society and it is the source of early stimulation and experience in children (Elujekwute, 2019). Collins (2014) states that, the home influences the students at the most earliest possible times of his/her life at a time when his/her mind is most receptive. It provides the first impression which may last through the whole life of the student.
The students often see the parents, siblings and things in their immediate environment to be most significant and they are capable of promoting or diminishing him/her in self worth and academic performance. Home environment has been recognized as having a lot of influence on academic performance of the students in secondary schools in Nigeria. Ganga and Chinyoke (2010) explains that the students’ first place of contact with the world is the family. The student as a result acquire initial education and socialization from parents and other significant member in the family, thus the parents are indeed the first educators.
According to Khan, Begum and Imad (2019) the home environment being a powerful influence on the students and its importance as a primary agent of socialization could in no doubt enhance or hinder the academic achievement of the student depending on the social climate in the home. The variance in psychosocial emotional fortification in the family background could be an indicator to high or low academic performance of the student, bearing in mind the intervening effects of high and low socioeconomic status and emotional stability of students which is a prerequisite to academic achievement. This is because psychological problem are potential source of trouble with, however a number of factors contribute to such students and such factors emanate from the school environment, curriculum planning and implementation, sibling and peer group influence, home environment, parents, socialization patterns in the home, location of the home, modern gadgets at home and among others.
Chapter Three Population of the Study
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description. This study was carried to examine the influence of home and school on student academic performance. Selected secondary schools in Uyo form the population of the study.
Chapter Four Discussions and Findings
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only seventy-seven (77) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 77 was validated for the analysis.
Chapter Five Summary and Conclusion
The aims of establishing secondary schools are to prepare students for further academic endeavors, meaning contribution to societal life, development of the individual sell and occupational opportunities. This and other parameters arc used to measure the academic performance of the students. The performance of students should not be affected by any intervening or moderating factors. From available data, evidence abound that the home and school environment has influence on the academic performance of secondary school students. To effectively achieve the objectives of secondary education, efforts must be made to moderate the home and school environment so that effective teaching and learning can take place and pave way for maximum academic performance of secondary school students, hence, the following recommendations.
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