Food Science and Technology Project Topics

The Nutritional Attributes of Powdered Milk Produced From the Mixture of Soybean (Glycine Max) and Tiger-nut (Cyperus Esculentus)

The Nutritional Attributes of Powdered Milk Produced From the Mixture of Soybean (Glycine Max) and Tigernut (Cyperus Esculentus)

The Nutritional Attributes of Powdered Milk Produced From the Mixture of Soybean (Glycine Max) and Tigernut (Cyperus Esculentus)

Chapter One

Objectives of the study

  1. To produce milk from a mixture of soybean and tiger-nut powder.
  2. To examine the nutritional value of milk produced from tiger-nut and soybean powder.




Tigernut (Cyprus esculenuts),an emergent grass-like plant belonging to the sedge family, is also found to be a cosmopolitan perennial crop of the same genus as the papyrus plant that is common in seasonally flooded wet land (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2009).It is widely distributed in the temperature zone within south Europe as its probable origin, and has become naturalized in Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone (Anon,2007).In Nigeria, tigernut is available in fresh, semi dried and dried form in the market where it is sold locally and consumed even uncooked. Tigernut are under-utilized due to lack of information on their nutritional potential (Rita, 2009)

 Tigernut as a Plant

Tigernut is a tough erect fibrous-rooted perennial plant 1to 3ft high, reproducing by seeds and by many deep, slender rhizomes, which form weak runners above the ground, and small tubers or outlets at the tips of underground stem (Consejo-Regulalador, 2009).This native perennial sedge is ½ to 2 inches tall and branched. The central stem is erecting, 3 angles, and mostly cover by the sheaths of the leaves. The leaves tend to congregate toward the base of the plants. The leaf blade are up1½inches long and ⅓inches across, they are light green and glabrous, spreading outward from the stem. There is a conspicuous channel along the central vein of each leaf blade, especially the larger ones. The leaf steaths are whitish green, closed and hairless; sometimes they become pale red toward the base of the plant (Kelley, 2010). The central stem terminates in an umbel or compound umbel or rather variable (on larger plants, it is usually several inches across). Each umbel has 1-3 sessile spikes and 6-10 non-sessile spike on straight branches of varying length. At the base of each umbel or compound; the largest bract is usually longer than inflorescence each floral spike is about 2-3inches long, consisting of 4 rank of spikelet along it central stalk or rach is the central stalk and ant ½-¾ inches long. The spikelet’s are yellow to golden brown, narrowly linear and flattened in shape; they consist of 10-30 florets and their scales; each scale is 2.0-3.0mm in length. Each flower has a white tripartite style are curly. The blooming period occur from mid-summer to early fall.

Pollination of Tigernut plant is by wind (James et al., 2010).The floret are replaced by small achene’s that are 1.0-1 5mm long, oblongoid or obolongold-obovoid, and flattened.

In northern Nigeria, the nut can be brought in the market all year round. The weight of fresh tuber ranges from 70mg to about 900mg while the weight of dried tuber ranges from 30mg to 350mg.A dried tuber nut can absorb up to three times its own weight of was observed that Tigernut production is predominantly the work of women farmer as high as 70% and 30% men (Mason. 2009). The tigernut are valued for their highly nutritious starch content, dietary fibre, digestible carbohydrate (Monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide) (Temple et al., 2005; Devries, 2006).

The nut was reported to be rich in sucrose (17.4 to 20.0%) and (fat 25.50%) which are resistant to peroxidation, and protein (7-8%). The nut is also fairly rich in mineral content (sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, and trace of copper) (Rita, 2009). Tigernut can be eaten raw, roasted, grated, baked or used for ice cream and beverages making for its much useful benefit (Rita, 2009; Belewu and Abodunrin, 2006). They taste best when dried. The nutritional value of Tigernut derivatives like oil and milk arises from the very composition of the tigernut. The level of the anti-nutrient such as tannins, alkaloids and polyphenolds is drastically reduce by soaking in water for 6 hours, thereby making it free from in wanted element especially in making the milk (Oladele et al., 2007).








 Collection of Materials

Matured soybean (Glycine max) and Tigernut (Cyprus esculentus) was purchased in Oja Oba in Owo, Ondo state Nigeria. The soybean and Tigernut were processed into powdered in in the food processing laboratory of Food Science and Technology Department, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.


  Production of Powdered Milk from Soybean

The soybean was sorted to remove foreign materials and dirt, then it was rinse and boiled for thirty minutes, after which it was cooled and dehulled by rubbing between palms, after that it was boiled again for thirty minutes. Then it was milled using attrition mill. After which it was sieve using muslin bag. After sieving it was boiled for one hour Ingredients such as (sugar, vanilla flavour) and preservative such as (citric acid) were added to it. After which it was cooled and allowed to settle for about ten hour. The surface water was poured away while the settle soymilk was boiled for fourth five minutes to allow the water to evaporate then it was put in cabinet dryer for appropriate drying




Table 4.1: Proximate Composition of Powdered Milk Produce from Mixture of Soybean and Tigernut.





From the study above it can be concluded that, the use of soybean and tigernut for the production of powdered milk as shown from the study is very nutritious, as the protein content of the powdered milk samples were higher than 18.00% (ST1 [27.2%], ST2 [22.95%] and ST3 [18.7%]) which indicates that the samples is a good source of protein and can be used in controlling PEM. The ash content of the samples also indicate high content of minerals in the samples. It can be concluded that soybean and tigernut are good raw materials which are nutritious and can be used for the production of powdered milk derived from plant source.


Based on the study above, it is therefore recommended that the cultivation of soybean and tigernut should be encouraged due to its nutritional composition and also the production of powdered milk from tigernut and soybean should be encouraged by food industries, the consumption of this products can also contribute tremendously in controlling food malnutrition both in adults and young ones in developing countries.


  • Anderson, J.W., Smith, B.W. and Gustafson, N.J. (2004). Health benefits and practical aspect of high fibre diet: American journal of Clinical nutritional 59; 12425-1275
  • Anon, A. (2007) Cyperusles in: The new Encyclopedia Britannica, Macropaedia, Chicago Volume 3 (15th Edition), p,185,
  • Bamishaye, E.I. and Bamishaye, O.M. (2011). Tugernut: As a plant, it’s  derivative and benefits. African food Agriculture, nutritional 11(8):557-5170
  • Bassey, S.O., Ambo, E.E., Umo, F.E. and Agiopu, F.B. (2016). Proximate composition and physicochemical properties of beverages from blends of soybean (Glycine Max) and Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus). Book of extend abstract of the 2nd southeast chapter regional food submit (ReFost) of Nigeria institute of Food Science and Technology, Umuahia. Pp: 459-469
  • Bate, R.P. and Matthews, R.F. (2005). Ascorbic acid B-carotene in soy bean as influence by maturity, sprouting, processing and storage. 88:266-71
  • Belewu, M.A. and Abodurin, O.A. (2006). Preparation of kunnu from unexploited rich food source Tigernut (Cyprus esculentus). World Journal of Dairy and food science., 1:19-21.
  • Beluwu, M.A. and Beluwu, K.Y.(2007). Comparative physico-chemical of Tiger nut, soyabeans and coconut milk sources. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology;9:785-787
  • Bodwell, C.E. (2003). Effects of soy protein on iron and zinc utilization in human Great foods; 28:342.