In this study of the physics of stars and their astronomical identification, it is evident that stars undergo certain physical processes as they live through their life cycle. How gravity, magnetic field and nuclear fusion play a role in stellar evolution is explained extensively. This research describes the structure and evolution of stars. The structure and evolution of a star is determined by the laws of Hydrostatic equilibrium, energy transport and generation and conservation of energy while the mass of the star is the governing factor in the evolution and structure of the star and determines its properties. Also, stellar spectra is discussed in this work. Different elements absorb different wavelengths of light.
The spectrum of a star lets us know what elements are in the star. Finally, stars and how they are identified astronomically is also discussed as different stars have different astronomical identification. This paper uses established techniques in cultural astronomy to identify seasonal stars in the traditions of the Kaurna Aboriginal people of the Adelaide Plains, South Australia.
Chapter One Significance of the Study
A scientist is a consumer as well as producer of information as he/she acquires, manipulates, updates, improves and report information. Consequently adequate understanding of the information gotten from the study is necessary for the proper planning and improving of further research in this setting. There are several studies that concentrates on the specific subjects or fields in the area. The study of the physics of stars and their astronomical identification especially in developing countries has been a significant and eventful issue from last few decades. Therefore, knowledge about the information needs and seeking behavior of users could play a vital role in meeting their information needs effectively.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS – GLOBAL SCENARIO
Astronomy and Astrophysics (AA) are branches of physics. Although both are different discipline.
Astronomy involves the observation of processes and interactions occurring in space.
The “heavenly bodies” or the celestial objects are in continuous motion. This often leads to the different reactions in space. These reactions results in the formation of rays and sparks in the universe. The word astronomy means “law of stars”. Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences. Astronomers of early civilizations performed methodical observations of the night sky, and astronomical artefacts have been found from much earlier periods. However, the invention of the telescope was required before astronomy was able to develop into a modern science. Historically, astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, the making of calendars, and even astrology, but professional astronomy is nowadays often considered to be synonymous with astrophysics (Astronomy XL, 2009) (17).
2.1.2 HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY
Astronomy was invented by people even before the birth of Jesus Christ and at that time people used to observe night sky with naked eyes from tall buildings, trees and high grounds. Slowly the concept of astronomy was developed and slowly people invented telescope. In its early days, observation and prediction of movement of celestial objects were the main parts of astronomy but with the advancement of science and technology, the scope of working on astronomy has been broadened significantly. Scientists around the world now practice different types of astronomy (Astronomy XL, 2009) (17). Further details about Indian scenario have been explained in a section 1.3 of this chapter.
2.1.3 TYPES OF ASTRONOMY
Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences in the world and also one of the greatest scientific inventions by human being. Astronomy is a wonderful scientific study that let us know about the atmosphere in outer space and movement of planets and galaxies in the solar system. There are two type of astronomy. They are: observational astronomy and theoretical astronomy.
Chapter Three Methodology
For this study, two important factors are necessary to determine the identity of Kaurna seasonal stars: 1) the heliacal rise time and location of stars, and 2) the time of seasonal change in the Adelaide Plains. The former can be calculated very precisely (to the day), while the latter cannot (ranging from weeks to months). Therefore, a suitable methodology must be developed to identify the best candidates for Kaurna calendric stars.
Calculating Heliacal and Acronycal Rising
When a star first appears on the eastern horizon just before sunrise (before its light is drowned out by the sun), it is referred to as heliacal rising. Cultures across the globe have used the heliacal rising of particular stars for hunting/gathering, agriculture, and seasonal markers for millennia (Aveni, 2003; Kelley and Milone, 2011), including Australia (Johnson, 1998). Acronycal rising (meaning opposite the sun) is when a star rises in the east at sunset. This is also significant for denoting calendric changes in Aboriginal astronomical traditions (e.g. Hamacher, 2012: 70-86).
The heliacal or acronycal rising of a star is dependent on a number of factors, including the azimuth and altitude of a star, the altitude and azimuth of the sun relative to the star’s position in the sky, the location and elevation of the observer, atmospheric conditions, and the star’s brightness and colour.
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