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The Problem of Solid Waste Management in Enugu Metropolis: A Case Study in Institute of Management and Technology (I.M.T) Campus III Enugu

The Problem of Solid Waste Management in Enugu Metropolis A Case Study in Institute of Management and Technology (I.M.T) Campus III Enugu

The Problem of Solid Waste Management in Enugu Metropolis: A Case Study in Institute of Management and Technology (I.M.T) Campus III Enugu

Chapter One


The purpose of this study is to
  • To determine the composition of solid waste in campus III
  • To examine the different management strategies being adopted in solid waste management by the institution as well as ENSEPA. Enugu State Environmental Protection Agencies.
  • To identify problems militating against solid waste management in campus III IMT Enugu Institute of Management and Technology.
  • To suggest appropriate and effective measures that will ensure efficient solid waste management in campus III IMT Institute of Management and Technology Enugu.



This chapter deals with review of related literature on solid waste management. The literature is reviewed under concept of solid waste, human perception of solid waste, types and sources of solid waste management practices including waste minimization, resource recovery and disposal techniques.


Attewell (1993:5) defined solid waste as man’s stream or rise in the air. They are the non liquid, non – gaseous residues of our manufacturing, construction, cooking, recreation, agricultural and other activities that are used and then discard materials, included in these category are out dated newspapers, glass, bottles, metal, cans, paper cups, plastic, abandoned automobiles, demolition rubble, mine tailing, dead animals, dewatering sewage sludge and the garbage from kitchen (Mantel 1975:11).

However waste generally refers to any substance which constitutes a scrap material and, or other unisanted sulphur substances arising from the application of any process, and or any substance or article that required to be disposed off as being broken or contaminated but does not include explosive substance within meaning of the Explosive Act 1875.

When something seized to be a useful object it becomes a waste. Waste is therefore a relative term whose meaning depends on what we use and how we use it. Remain food particles from dinner may be cast into garbage or into a garbage container as waste but under another circumstance the bone may be preserved fore soup and presented to an appreciative dog. (Sewell 1988:219).

Sewell (1988:219) further argued that one may use a piece of paper for not then deposit it into a waste basket as trash but later when lacking a convenient scrap out of the waste basket and use the reserve side thus transforming that paper back into a useful object. It therefore implies that the kind and quantity of solid waste today are largely determined by cultural institution (WHO 1989:1). These solid wastes when not properly managed are of grave consequences to the environment. They pose problems such as:

  • Public healthy hazards
  • Aesthetic degradation
  • Occupation of space
  • Water and air pollution.

Based on the above problems inherited in solid waste generation and mismanagement, Houghton (1993:1) prescribed four stage decision procedure for effective waste management namely:

  • Avoid creating waste where possible.
  • Recycling unavoidable waste where possible.
  • If recycling for materials used is not possible recover energy from them.
  • Where the above options have been exhausted utilize the best practicable environmental option to dispose of the waste. WHO (1989:1) maintained that solid waste inadequately collected and disposed causes usual degradation of residual area and block drainage channels. Sewell (1988:222) agreed that solid waste constitute a visible and durable blight upon our land scrap. Therefore, broken parts of automobile litter streets and fields, trash and garbage spread along high ways, open dumps often located on the high ways and residential areas generate odour and constitute eye – fore to the inhabitant WHO (1987:1) stressed that if garbage litter the street, the opposition group are likely to “use that as a political tool against the opponents.”

In spite of the above, the periphery of our urban centres are bedeviled with environmental degradation and aesthetic deformation are still evident, for instance, mine waste like coal reduce aesthetic beauty of the area (Sewell 1988:223).





This chapter deal with various method of the research work. This includes the research design, there are of study, the population, the type of data collection, the validity of the instrument, the method of data analysis.

Research Design

Survey research design is used in the study of solid waste management practices and problems in IMT campus III Enugu.

Population Sample

Survey research design is used in the study of solid waste management practices and problems in IMT campus III Enugu.

Population Sample

A simple stratified random sample technique was applied in selecting a sample of population from the sample size outlined below:

Refuse Site Selection

The following refuse site were selected

  1. Opposite Education Tax Fun
  2. Near Oduduwa Student Association bus stop
  3. Campus III
  4. At the back of shantol campus III

Source of Data

Primary Source

The primary source of data include the respondents articulated responses from the questionnaires administered to them.

In addition the data are soured through observation of refuse dumps at strategic locations in the study area.

Secondary Sources

The secondary sources of data are from the published work in public libraries which researcher went through in the course of the study.




The management and fiscal problems that confront proper solid waste disposal.


The key problems of ENSEPA in Enugu Metropolis Responses on the problem as mentioned by ENSEPA staff and the general public sampled are presented on the table.




The finding from the investigation on the solid waste management practices and problems in campus III IMT were discussed below, the discussion is on the nature of waste, the management practice, the problems and solution that would enhance proper management practices. The discussion is based on the analysis of data obtained from the respondents and the researchers observation of the subject matter in the filed.

On the nature of solid waste management, the researcher observed that both biodegradable and non – biodegradable waste are generated. Such biodegradable materials include scraps of paper, leaves, kitchen rubbish non-biodegradable wastes, includes empty bottles broken metallic and plastic container polythens, bags broken glasses etc. The above categories of waste are mixed up in the dumps, this constituting management problem. The problems of none classification of the solid waste generated emanate from the source – home, offices and stores. They are mixed up in the container with which they are disposed. Most of the dumps were in discriminatory located by the waste generators. An investigation reveled that out of all the refuse dumps in the duty area only few were officially built up dumps. In this regard the ENSEPA, staff emphasized that they have only one tipper one pay leader that have grounded since past two year. They also complained of lack of tools for this purpose. The administration manager remarked that the spirit with which vehicles were donated by the  public during the sanitation day for this purpose has declined consequently they find it difficult to remove the waste as and when due.


The finding of this research have implication for curriculum planners, environmental manager individual occupants in the Enugu Metropolis, Local State and federal government, and student researchers in the related topic and general public.

To curriculum planner the findings will help them integrate solid waste management, with emphasis one recycling in the school curriculum. This will help instill in the youths, the knowledge and skills that enable them minimize waste generation there by reducing the environmental degradation of our cities.

The research findings will help the environmental manager athiculate proper strategies necessary for proper solid waste management in various  location. The public will enjoy healthy environment when the source of pollution and aesthetic degradation are the knowledge of recycling of the waste for future use is an asset because waste becomes wealth to them. Various state and local governments are reminded of their duties towards proper waste disposal. They benefit also,  because the beauty of a state or the community is a glory to the government. To student researchers, it serves as a stepping stone upon which further research can be carried out on a related topic within or without study area. To the general public environmental degradation is a source of communication disease and a healthy environment is a wealthy environment because health they say in wealth.


Having surveyed the practices and problems of solid waste management in campus III IMT Enugu. The research identified some solution to the problems. In this regard, the following recommendation have been made by the researcher.

  1. The urban dwellers should try to recycle the waste they generate as a means of reducing wattages and urban pollutions.
  2. That waste generated should be stored out before disposal for possible reuse by those who need them.
  3. The farmers should be encouraged to use biodegradable instead of Artificial Fertilizer to minimize costs.
  4. The sanitation authorities ENSEPA should be well equipped with facilities to enable them discharged their duties.
  5. The field staff of this authority should be thoroughly supervised and their salaries paid as and when due to ensure their effectiveness.
  6. A field staff should be posted to waste dumps to supervise the disposal operation such field officer will ensure that refuse are disposed at proper units.
  7. That Federal Government should assist state in setting up solid structures, where the solid wastes are deposited to reduce pollution emanating from dumps.
  8. That broadcasting method of biodegradable materials should be adopted instead of concentrating such in a place. Such mechanism will indirectly improve the soil for Agricultural and as well minimize pollution.
  9. Awareness campaign one proper waste management should be carried at the grass root level.


A study on solid waste management practice and problems should be carried out in other location outside this study area for a wider generalization.

However, this study revealed various management strategies constraints and suggestion include the on – the spot separation, recycling and reuse. The above generated for final disposal. When the quantity is minimized the level of pollution is indirectly reduce too and the aesthetic quality of our environment will be improved.


  • Attewell P. 1973 – Ground Pollutions Environmental Geology, Engineering and Law Publication, Pitman Press Bath Great Britain pp. 245 – 267.
  • Hester, R.E. & Harrison R.M. 1994 – Waste Incineration and the Environment, issues in Environmental Science and Technology London pp. 22 – 28.
  • Sewell H.G.C (1988) – Environmental quality management New Jersy pp. 46 – 53.
  • David C. Wilson (1981) – Waste Management Planning, Evaluation Technologies New York Oxford University Press pp. 188 – 195.
  • Telford Thomas (1990) – Pollution and its containment waste disposal New York (pp. 89 – 99) et al.
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