The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) in Community Development
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study is to find out the impact made by Non- governmental organization (NGO) towards community development.
SPECIAL OBJECTIVES INCLUDES
1) To identify whether it is necessary for the development of a community.
2) To know if Non- governmental organization reasonable impact in developing the community.
3 To know the various ways through which Non- governmental organization contribute towards community development.
4) To examine the possibility of achieving a better development through collaborated efforts of the NGO.
5) To make investigation on the economic status of the community in independence layout and evaluate the impact of Non- governmental organization in their assistance.
6) To known the obstacles facing community development in independence layout.
REVIEWED OF RELATED LITERATURE
The stoic belief that people can work together to shape their destiny when allowed to participate in a free, open, and non-threatening environment is what formed the basis of community development. Community development has been one of the most significant social forces in the process of planned and effective change. A community is a recognized social unit, such as a group or association of individuals with a common need, value, interest, and function. Community growth, development, and stability can be viewed as a continuous process, through which stakeholders of a community come together to take collective actions and generate solutions to their everyday problems. Community development can range from a small initiative within a small group of people to greater actions that involve a broader environment. The concept of community development has evolved over the years from the primitive period, pre-industrial, post-industrial, to the modern-day. In the primitive period, community development aimed at protecting communities from enemies or other cities. The highest priority then was to establish a robust defense strategy for community protection. Customs, traditions, and taboos were the guiding principles in that era. In the pre-industrial period, community development transcended into the mobilization of resources. Societies plundered the resources of other communities for their growth, development, and sustainability. The focus of community development during this period was for workforce development and self-defense, and this was achieved by resource mobilization. During the industrial period, community development was seen in a new light. Infrastructural development and resource mobilization for industrial growth were the two driving forces of community development during this period. In the modern-day, community development has witnessed a drastic shift in focus. The social well-being of people is the focus of community growth and development. These activities are spread across all the positive elements required to enhance the social welfare of the individual and society. The planning and implementation of community development programs involve more people in the modern-day than all other periods. Today, it is more of an interdisciplinary affair, aimed at solving the wicked problem of the society and making judicious use of our scarce resources (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2008). This has become a necessary skill required for effective community growth and development. The required community development burden has become enormous, and efforts made by local organizations and the government to cater to all the ramifications of individual and societal needs are not sufficient. Hence, the need for NGO interventions in addressing these gaps.
Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs)
The term NGOs states to approximately all organisations created outside governmental bodies, except for political parties and private organisations. The organisation must be voluntary and carry out activities legally following the laws in force in a country. NGOs are competently run organisations that aim to contribute to the human suffering reduction and poor countries development (Streeten, 1997) through variety techniques including funding projects, helping provide services and building capacity (Baccaro, 2001).
Stromquist (2002) identifies three main functions for NGOs, such as providing services, providing educational services and defending public policy. Baccaro (2001) shows how certain NGOs can promote the organisation and empowerment of the poor, especially women, through training for group members and awareness raising and other social services. According to Zimmerman and Rappaport (1988), empowerment is the ability of an individual to gain control socially, politically, economically and psychologically through access to information, knowledge and skills, making decisions and individual self-efficacy, community participation, and perceived control.
Over the long period, NGOs seek to promote sustainable community development through activities that promote capacity building and empowerment. Langran (2002) described capacity building as enabling NGOs to support community development. NGOs are often created to increase people’s capabilities. NGOs are also commended for promoting community autonomy and empowerment through support to community groups and through participatory processes (Korten, 1990).
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried to examine the role of non-governmental organizations (NGO) in community development. Selected communities in Enugu state form the population of the study.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only seventy-seven (77) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 77 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the role of non-governmental organizations (NGO) in community development.. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the role of non-governmental organizations (NGO) in community development.
This study was on the role of non-governmental organizations (NGO) in community development. Five objectives were raised which included: To identify whether it is necessary for the development of a community, to know if Non- governmental organization reasonable impact in developing the community, to know the various ways through which Non- governmental organization contribute towards community development, to examine the possibility of achieving a better development through collaborated efforts of the NGO, to make investigation on the economic status of the community in independence layout and evaluate the impact of Non- governmental organization in their assistance and to known the obstacles facing community development in independence layout.. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from selected communities in Enugu state. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).
In conclusion, the pivotal role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in community development is undeniable. Through their multifaceted efforts, NGOs contribute significantly to fostering sustainable, inclusive, and resilient societies. Their involvement ranges from delivering essential services and advocating for policy changes to empowering marginalized groups and addressing pressing environmental concerns. By emphasizing community participation, NGOs ensure that development initiatives are tailored to the specific needs and aspirations of local residents.
The impact of NGOs extends across various sectors, such as healthcare, education, poverty alleviation, gender equality, and environmental conservation. Their collaborative partnerships with governments, international organizations, and local stakeholders amplify their effectiveness in driving positive change. By championing the rights and interests of marginalized communities, NGOs play a crucial role in addressing social inequalities and promoting social justice.
While NGOs face challenges such as resource constraints, regulatory hurdles, and coordination issues, their dedication and grassroots engagement remain unwavering. Their work is characterized by adaptability, innovation, and a commitment to creating lasting transformations. As we navigate an increasingly complex global landscape, NGOs continue to evolve and adapt their approaches to meet the evolving needs of communities.
In essence, the dynamic role of NGOs in community development exemplifies the power of collective action and the potential for positive change when organizations and communities unite. As we move forward, it is imperative to recognize and support the vital contributions of NGOs, understanding that their efforts are essential building blocks for a better future, where every individual and community can thrive.
- Strengthening Collaboration: Foster stronger partnerships between NGOs, governments, and local communities. Collaboration enhances resource sharing, expertise exchange, and more effective implementation of development initiatives.
- Capacity Building: Invest in capacity-building programs for NGOs to enhance their organizational skills, project management capabilities, and community engagement strategies. Strengthening their internal capacities enables NGOs to deliver more impactful and sustainable interventions.
- Local Context Sensitivity: Prioritize understanding the unique cultural, social, and economic contexts of communities. NGOs should tailor their interventions to match the specific needs and aspirations of the people they aim to serve.
- Participatory Approach: Continue prioritizing participatory approaches that involve community members in decision-making processes. This ensures ownership, sustainability, and the alignment of projects with the real needs of the community.
- Innovation and Technology: Embrace technological advancements and innovative approaches to amplify the reach and impact of NGO initiatives. Digital tools can facilitate data collection, communication, and program monitoring.
- Monitoring and Evaluation: Implement robust monitoring and evaluation frameworks to assess the effectiveness and outcomes of NGO projects. Transparent reporting enhances accountability and informs continuous improvement.
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