Medical Sciences Project Topics

The Role of Plants in the Treatment of Diseases Caused by Micro-organisms Based in the Natural Products

The Role of Plants in the Treatment of Diseases Caused by Micro-organisms Based in the Natural Products

The Role of Plants in the Treatment of Diseases Caused by Micro-organisms Based in the Natural Products

Chapter One

Aim and objectives

This study is aimed at showing which of the plants above is more effective in the treatment of diseases caused by micro-organisms based in the natural products present in them.

The specific objectives include;

  1. Determination of antibacterial effect of P. amarus and P. niruri.
  2. Determination of anti fungal effect of P. amarus and P. niruri.



Phytochemical composition of crude extract of Phyllantus amarus (P. amarus).

The crude extract of P. amarus was found to contain flavonoids, saponins, phenols, alkaloids, tannins, reducing sugars and cardiac glycosides. (Phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, securinine, and norsecurinine have been isolated from P. amarus (Kabiru et al. 2013).

 Phytochemical compositions of Phyllantus niruri

  1. niruri has yielded various phytochemicals which include flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, lignans, polyphenols, tannins, coumarins and saponins (Bagalkotare et al; 2006) phyllantin, hypophyllanthin, Lignans niranthin, nirtetralin and phyltetralin (Restogi and Mehrota, 1991). The presence of this phytochemicals points to its usefulness in the fight against malaria.

Malaria and the role of Phyllantus amarus and Phyllantus niruri in the fight against malaria.

Malaria affects millions of people all over the world, but a reliable estimate of those infected and at risk from the disease has been difficult to come by.  In many parts of Africa, children suffer more than one clinical bout of malaria each year resulting in death or life-long health problems from delayed treatment. Most often public health officials and aid agencies do not know which regions are most affected (Avasthi, 2005).

Despite decades of research, malaria infection remains a major global health problem with high mortality and mobility than any other infectious  disease (WHO, 2011). Efforts to disrupt the life cycle of the parasite by controlling the vector have had only limited success while the usefulness of anti-malaria drugs is hampered by their lack of availability to those most in need and to the rapid evaluation of drug resistant parasites. An effective vaccine remains the most promising approach to controlling the disease (Good, 2009) but is still not available.

According to latest estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2009 there were 225 million cases of malaria and an estimated 781,000 deaths worldwide-most deaths occurring among children living in the WHO African Region (mainly sub-Saharan Africa) (WHO, 2011).

In Nigeria, malaria is endemic throughout the Country. World Health Organization (WHO) estimated malaria mortality rate for children under five in Nigeria at 729 per 100,000. The Ministry of Health reported in  April 2004 that malaria is responsible for one out of ten deaths in  pregnant women and has caused the Federal Government of Nigeria over one billion naira annually in treating malaria. (Odugbemi et al; 2007). Hence, the need for further research to handle this menace.




Collection and drying of plant materials:

Fresh leaves of Phyllantus amarus and Phyllantus niruri  were collected in October, 2014, at the University of Calabar staff village, Calabar, Nigeria.

The plants were identified and authenticated at the Botany Department of University of Calabar, Calabar, by pastor Frank Apejoye. The harvested fresh leaves were washed and dried in an oven at a temperature of 400C for 48hrs in the laboratory of Chemistry Department, University of Calabar.

Extraction procedure

The dried leaves were blended to fine powder using a manual blended (F No 4 Quaker City, Mill Philadelphia  PA.U.S.A F8). Batch extraction was carried out on the material. In the batch extraction, the powdered materials (200g Phyllantus amarus   and 200g, Phyllantus niruri) were separately macerated in 250ml of ethanol for 24 hours. The extracts were sieved and t



Antibacterial activity

Table 4.1 shows the in vitro antibacterial activities ethanolic extracts of Phyllantus amarus and Phyllantus niruri leaves.

Ethanolic extracts of Phyllantus amarus leaf showed inhibitory activity against. Escherichia. coli Klebsiella pneumonia, streptococas species, staphylococcus aureus. The following bacteria: Salmonella typhi, Bacillus species and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were resistant to it.




The results or antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) study of Phyllantus amarus and Phyllantus niruri extracts indicate that the ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllantus niruri was more active than that of Phyllantus amarus.

The ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllantus niruri showed good inhibitory properties on the bacteria: E. coli, klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococas species, Bacillus species, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa. For fungi, the ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllantus niruri was more active against Candida ablican and Penicilium species.

Ethenolic leaf extract of Phyllantus amarus was effective against the bacteria E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococas species and, Staphylococcus aureus (but less effective compare to Phyllantus niruri), Bacillus species, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were resistant to the extract. For fungi, ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllantus amarus was effective against Candida ablican, penicilium species and Aspergillus niger. compare to Phyllantus niruri, ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllantus amarus was more effective against Aspergillus niger.


It is my recommendation that Phyllantus amarus and Phyllantus niruri are important plants from medicinal point of view and can be potent candidates for further in vivo bioassays which could lead to the development of new drugs.


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